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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Feminism and Peace

Feminism and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,125 words

...in History, Politics, and Social Theory , edited by Jean Bethke Elshtain and Sheila Tobias , pp. 141–160. Lantham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1990. Bussey, Gertrude , and Margaret Tims . Pioneers for Peace: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom 1915–1965 . London and Geneva: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 1980. Cockburn, Cynthia . From Where We Stand: War, Women’s Activism, and Feminist Analysis . London and New York: Zed Books, 2007. Feinman, Ilene Rose . Citizenship Rites: Feminist Soldiers and Feminist...

Arbitration of Disputes, History of

Arbitration of Disputes, History of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,968 words

...arbitration was already known in ancient times. For instance, between 650 and 98 bce , the arbitral function in the Hellenic world was performed by small city-states, regional leagues, corporate bodies (like the Delphic Oracle and the Areopagus), statesmen, and foreign rulers. A well-known case was the treaty of 445 bce in which Athens and Sparta, at the end of the First Peloponnesian War (461–445 bce ), agreed on a thirty-year armistice and promised not to go to war against a party that was willing to submit the issues in dispute to arbitration. However,...

Women and War 

Women and War    Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,734 words

...world war, and they formed the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom. The Nobel Peace Prize committee recognized the organization’s ability to bring people together across warring boundaries by awarding its first president, Jane Addams, the prize in 1931 and its secretary, Emily Greene Bach, the prize in 1946 . Although not the oldest international peace organization still in operation today (that honor goes to two much older organizations that include men), the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom continues to advocate for peace...

Humanism

Humanism   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,855 words

...on the nature, practice, and implications of war and peace. The Classical and Medieval Worlds Although taken for granted as both natural and inevitable by most in the classical world, war was not valued for itself but only as a means to some other end. In his history of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides makes clear his own judgment that the armed struggle between oligarchic Sparta and democratic Athens was an unnecessary clash of ambitions, with both sides to blame. He characterizes the Athenian position as a simple impulse toward empire, where the strong rule...

Disarmament

Disarmament   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
5,336 words

...in 1919 stipulated that Germany be disarmed so that other nations could disarm. But all security schemes in the 1920s and 1930s were subverted by the U.S. failure to join the League of Nations. Even though Germany’s forces were disbanded, France and its allies demanded stronger security guarantees as the precondition for laying down their weapons. Given the weaknesses of the League system, the Versailles victors never agreed to comprehensive disarmament. Nor did they act to prevent Germany’s rearmament. Nuclear Weapons Arms competition changed radically...

Women, Peace, and War

Women, Peace, and War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
4,228 words

...own council would never initiate an armed conflict. The idea of women as pacifists and peacebrokers had already been envisioned by the Greek playwright Aristophanes around 400 bce . In his play Lysistrata , the Athenian protagonist (Lysistrata) seeks a “means to stamp the [Peloponnesian] war out.” She convinces her peers to “compel the men to bow to peace” by withholding sex from their husbands and lovers. At the same time, she tries to take charge of the national treasury and dispatch ambassadors to negotiate peace. In the play, Lysistrata is successful....

Art

Art   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
16,627 words

...Dreadnought , renamed Workers’ Dreadnought in 1917 . Its attractive appearance helped make the Marxist-socialist antiwar journal widely influential. In 1915 Pankhurst was on the founding executive of the British branch of the Women’s International League ( WIL ), which became the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). Pankhurst joined demonstrations against conscription and was imprisoned for sedition from October 1920 until May 1921 for Dreadnought articles allegedly inciting mutiny among the armed forces. Deeply anti-racist, she...

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War   Reference library

Matt Simonton

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,420 words

...expertise, they soon afforded Athens a near-monopoly on the means of violence within the League. The Athenians transferred the League treasury from Delos to Athens and exacted tribute from their imperial subjects. (For overviews of the Athenian empire see Meiggs, 1972 ; and Kallet-Marx, 2008 . ) Athens’ naval, cash-based, increasingly democratic empire contrasted strongly with traditional Greek norms, and in particular with the model of Sparta's Peloponnesian League, in which largely oligarchic states contributed hoplite infantry forces rather than money...

Sanctions

Sanctions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,212 words

...by Athens during the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century b.c. , France organized a grain boycott against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars, and in the twentieth century naval blockades were instituted by belligerents in both world wars. During the Cold War, Western countries maintained an embargo on exports of strategic goods to the Soviet Union. However, the concept of multilateral economic sanctions as a means of ensuring “collective security” was introduced by the League of Nations in 1920 , and in spite of the failure of League sanctions against...

International Systems

International Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,187 words

...Systems . In a 1947 Princeton speech General George C. Marshall doubted “whether a man can think with full wisdom and with deep convictions regarding certain of the basic issues of today who has not at least reviewed in his mind the period of the Peloponnesian War and the fall of Athens”; he probably had in mind Thucydides ' time-defying claim to have written his history not for momentary popularity, but “for all time.” Indeed, Thucydides wished to discover an exact knowledge of the past “which (human nature being what it is) will, at some time...

Security

Security   Reference library

Lucas Kello

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,541 words

...in 1919 through the creation of a League of Nations whose central function was to oversee the peaceful resolution of disputes and, if necessary, to punish aggressors with sanctions or even armed force. Here, then, was an attempt to resolve the security dilemma by conceptual fiat. Because it defines security as peace itself, the doctrine of collective security holds that the outbreak of war imperils all nations in equal measure; thus, violence will be resisted uniformly. During the lifetime of the League, however, the peace concept was repeatedly...

War

War   Reference library

David Fisher

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,674 words

...That is the aim of the just-war tradition. [ See also Arab-Israeli Conflict ; Bosnian War ; Cold War ; Force, Use of ; Guerrilla Warfare ; Gulf War ; Iran-Iraq War ; Iraq, US Invasion of ; Just War Theory ; Kashmir, Conflict in ; Korean War ; Kosovo War ; Peloponnesian War ; Preemptive and Preventive War ; Realism ; Rwandan Genocide ; Spanish Civil War ; Vietnam War ; War Crimes ; War Crimes Tribunals ; Warfare, Rules of ; World War I ; and World War II . ] Bibliography Clausewitz, Karl von . On War . Translated by Michael Howard...

Mantineia, battles of

Mantineia, battles of (418)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...battles of ( 418 , 362 , and 207 bc ). These three battles spanned the whole development of Greek warfare from a typical hoplite battle to the appearance of catapults. The first was during the Peloponnesian wars and was fought between a largely Spartan and Tegeate army, and a combined army consisting largely of Mantineians, Argives, and Athenians. Having the larger army, the Spartan King Agis II attempted to cover the enemy overlap on his left by shifting his left wing outwards and plugging the gap with units from the right. But his orders...

Greek city-state wars

Greek city-state wars (395–362 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...city-state wars ( 395–362 bc ). Defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian wars ended the artificial order imposed on a normally fragmented Greece by the great alliances headed by Athens and Sparta . What followed was a chaotic period in which Sparta, Thebes , and a renascent Athens jostled for power, with Persia stirring the pot. Fear of any one state growing powerful enough to dominate the others is the key to understanding the shifting alliances. Thus fear of Sparta was essentially the cause of the Corinthian war ( 395–386 ), in which her former...

Greek historians

Greek historians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military experience, that is true of most military historians, and his supposed naivety may accurately reflect the unsophisticated nature of the warfare of his time. Thucydides ( ?460– c. 390 bc ) is very different, but he was contemporary with his main subject, the Peloponnesian wars , and too much can be made of his military experience, which only certainly amounted to one campaign. Despite the existence of far more documentary evidence, most of the evidence he used was also oral, and we should not assume that he checked it more carefully than ...

International Organization and Ending Conflicts

International Organization and Ending Conflicts   Reference library

Alistair D. Edgar

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,675 words

...by the work of Thucydides, Knutsen adds that he nonetheless borrowed stories from The Peloponnesian War and, like Thucydides and Livy, he believed firmly that the lessons of history could be employed as a valuable tool for the political education of state leaders ( Knutsen 1992 :33–40; Boucher 1998 :90–144). While there is agreement about the prominent role of Thucydides more generally in shaping the works of subsequent theorists, and especially of The Peloponnesian War as a central text of what later would become the Realist strand of international...

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies

Feminist Contributions and Challenges to Peace Studies   Reference library

Catia Cecilia Confortini

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,444 words

...but their organization continued and, after the war, took the name of Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom ( WILPF ), which is now the oldest international women’s peace organization and one of the oldest peace organizations in the world. At the end of the war, the women protested the terms of the Versailles Treaty, anticipated that resentment over the terms of the treaty would eventually lead to another war, and supported the creation of the League of Nations ( Schott 1997 :78–79). The interwar years saw increased reflection on the importance...

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis

Leadership and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Thomas Preston

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,452 words

...was immoral. Thus, Wilson’s efforts to create the League of Nations took on the form of a great moral crusade. He was unable to compromise on any perceived moral issues and his conflict with Senate Majority Leader Lodge (who ultimately defeated Wilson’s efforts to bring the US into the organization) took the form of a renewed conflict with a “father-like” strict authoritarian figure. In the absence of such psychological baggage, a different president might have succeeded where Wilson failed regarding the League. Other well-known examples of psychoanalytic or...

Realism and Security

Realism and Security   Reference library

Stephen M. Walt

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,705 words

...concept of “security” is central to the realist tradition. Indeed, one might argue that this narrow conception of “security” (i.e., protection against violent attack or coercion) has been inextricably linked to realist thought since its inception. In his famous history of the Peloponnesian War, for example, Thucydides traced its origins to the fear induced in Sparta by the growth of Athenian power ( 1996 :16). For Niccolo Machiavelli , writing in the Italian Renaissance, the Prince’s key object must be to preserve his position and the security of his realm in a...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1990. Maya Lin, et al. , Grounds for Remembering , 1995. Samuel Hynes , The Soldier's Tale. Bearing Witness to Modern War , 1997. Jay Winter Disciplinary Views Of War: Causes‐Of‐War Studies The causes of war have puzzled Western thinkers since Thucydides attributed the Peloponnesian War to fear of the growing power of Athens. Machiavelli thought that war was the natural order of things and fighting the first business of the prince. Immanuel Kant noted that states with republican regimes were more peaceful than other states, an insight that anticipated...

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