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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Ancient Navies

Ancient Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,774 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of reserve ships; that is, there were not enough full oar crews for all the ships. After the debacle of Salamis in 480 , the navy became much smaller—up to the end of the Peloponnesian war ( 431–404 ) it was denied its footing in the Aegean by the navy of the Athenian alliance (the Delian League), and this clearly reduced its potential by more than half. Even after the Delian League was dissolved in 404 , the Persian navy never regained its old strength; four hundred is the largest figure referred to. According to Herodotus and Strabo, the Persian navy...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Asia Minor, who were now intent on driving the Persians out of their own territory. In 478/477 b.c.e. an alliance was formed for this purpose, known as the Delian League, which soon became, effectively, an Athenian empire. The First Peloponnesian War (c. 460–446 b.c.e. ) The growth in Athenian power led, around 460 b.c.e. , to the outbreak of a war (sometimes known as the First Peloponnesian War) between Athens and the city of Corinth , itself a naval power backed by the Spartans. In the course of the war Athens subjugated the neighboring island of...

Technology and Weapons

Technology and Weapons   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
10,000 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interconnected siege towers, unchallenged by any Byzantine naval force. [ See also Ancient Navies ; Medieval Navies ; Mediterranean Sea ; Oars and Oarmaking ; Warships, subentries on Ancient Warships and Medieval Warships ; and Wars, Maritime, subentries on Peloponnesian War and Crusades .] Casson, Lionel . Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World . 2d ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986. This is the best study of ancient Mediterranean ships up to the fifth century c.e. It is fully referenced and illustrated....

Warships

Warships   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,668 words
Illustration(s):
5

... made the trireme very popular. City-states that could afford to do so built trireme fleets. Athens, the leading city-state in Greece and head of a defense league against the Persians, had a fleet of more than two hundred triremes. The oarsmen were citizens and not primarily slaves. The Athenians fought many sea battles, first against the Persians, later against the city-states of the Peloponnesian League. In a naval engagement the two sides usually faced one another in line abreast. When combat started they avoided ramming prow to prow and tried to hit the...

Mantineia, battles of

Mantineia, battles of (418)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...battles of ( 418 , 362 , and 207 bc ). These three battles spanned the whole development of Greek warfare from a typical hoplite battle to the appearance of catapults. The first was during the Peloponnesian wars and was fought between a largely Spartan and Tegeate army, and a combined army consisting largely of Mantineians, Argives, and Athenians. Having the larger army, the Spartan King Agis II attempted to cover the enemy overlap on his left by shifting his left wing outwards and plugging the gap with units from the right. But his orders...

Greek city-state wars

Greek city-state wars (395–362 bc)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...city-state wars ( 395–362 bc ). Defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian wars ended the artificial order imposed on a normally fragmented Greece by the great alliances headed by Athens and Sparta . What followed was a chaotic period in which Sparta, Thebes , and a renascent Athens jostled for power, with Persia stirring the pot. Fear of any one state growing powerful enough to dominate the others is the key to understanding the shifting alliances. Thus fear of Sparta was essentially the cause of the Corinthian war ( 395–386 ), in which her former...

Greek historians

Greek historians   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of military experience, that is true of most military historians, and his supposed naivety may accurately reflect the unsophisticated nature of the warfare of his time. Thucydides ( ?460– c. 390 bc ) is very different, but he was contemporary with his main subject, the Peloponnesian wars , and too much can be made of his military experience, which only certainly amounted to one campaign. Despite the existence of far more documentary evidence, most of the evidence he used was also oral, and we should not assume that he checked it more carefully than ...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

..., 1990. Maya Lin, et al. , Grounds for Remembering , 1995. Samuel Hynes , The Soldier's Tale. Bearing Witness to Modern War , 1997. Jay Winter Disciplinary Views Of War: Causes‐Of‐War Studies The causes of war have puzzled Western thinkers since Thucydides attributed the Peloponnesian War to fear of the growing power of Athens. Machiavelli thought that war was the natural order of things and fighting the first business of the prince. Immanuel Kant noted that states with republican regimes were more peaceful than other states, an insight that anticipated...

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