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Peloponnesian League

The earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance. The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league ...

Peloponnesian League

Peloponnesian League   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
850 words

... League The city-states of ancient Greece sometimes formed long-term multistate alliances, nowadays called “leagues.” The Peloponnesian League was one of the earliest of these, with Sparta as its leader or hēgemōn . It was essentially a military organization whose object was protection of Sparta and its allies from external and internal threats. The Peloponnesian League was not a federal state like the Boeotian and Achaean leagues, nor did it become an empire like the Athenian-led Delian League. Military service was the only obligation; there was no...

Peloponnesian League

Peloponnesian League   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
381 words

... League , the earliest known and longest‐lasting Greek offensive and defensive alliance . The name is modern and inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all‐ and only Peloponnesian nor a league (the members were not all allied to each other, and when no League war was in progress, members were free to carry on separate wars even with other members); the usual ancient name was ‘the Lacedaemonians (Spartans) and their allies’. In the 6th cent. Sparta used personal ties of xenia ( see friendship, ritualized ) to negotiate treaties of alliance...

Peloponnesian League

Peloponnesian League   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
524 words

... League , the earliest known and the most long-lived Greek summachia or offensive and defensive alliance . The name is modern and strictly inaccurate, since the alliance was neither all- and only Peloponnesian nor a league (the members were not all allied to each other, and when no League war was in progress, members were free to carry on separate wars even against other members); the usual ancient name was ‘the Lacedaemonians (Spartans) and their allies’. In the 6th cent. Sparta used personal ties of xenia ( see friendship, ritualized ) to...

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The war of 431–404bc fought between Athens and Sparta with their respective allies, occasioned largely by Spartan opposition to the Delian League. It ended in the total defeat of Athens and the ...
Athenian empire

Athenian empire  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
The cities and islands mainly in the Aegean area that paid tribute to Athens in the 5th century bc. It developed out of the Delian League as Athens, by virtue of its great naval superiority, imposed ...
imperialism

imperialism  

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Overview Page
Subject:
History
N.a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force: the struggle against Western imperialism.imperialistic adj. imperialistically adv.n.a policy of extending ...
Achaean League

Achaean League   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
86 words

...League A confederacy of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece . Its name derived from the region of Achaea in the northern Peloponnese. In the 4th century bc an alliance was forged that was dissolved in 338 bc . The League was refounded in 280 bc , under the leadership of Aratus of Sicyon. It became involved in wars with Macedonia and Sparta, before allying itself with Rome in 198. However, war with Rome in 146 led to defeat and the dissolution of the League...

Sparta

Sparta   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
233 words

...took shape somewhere between 700 and 600 bc . From the 6th century, Sparta became the hub of an alliance comprising most of Peloponnesian and Isthmian states except its traditional rival, Argos; but many of these allies in the ‘Peloponnesian League’ were little more than puppets of Sparta. Sparta led the successful Greek resistance in the Greek-Persian wars , but later came into protracted conflict with Athens in the Peloponnesian War . Its final victory in 404 bc left it dominant in Greece and the Aegean; but after crushing defeats by Thebes at Leuctra...

Athenian empire

Athenian empire   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
186 words

...empire The cities and islands mainly in the Aegean area that paid tribute to Athens in the 5th century bc . It developed out of the Delian League as Athens, by virtue of its great naval superiority, imposed its will on its allies. A significant step was the transference of the League’s treasury from Delos to Athens probably in 454 bc , since this ensured for Athens absolute control of the tribute. Inscriptions and literary sources reveal the means by which Athens controlled its subjects: the installation of garrisons; the establishment of...

Athens

Athens   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
287 words

...put the Athenian democracy on to a firm footing. In 490 bc and 480–479 the city‐state enjoyed success in the Greek‐Persian Wars . Subsequently its rulers transformed the Delian League into the Athenian empire . The city supported brilliant artistic activity, attracting artists from throughout the Mediterranean. However, it was defeated by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War , losing by 404 the empire, almost all its fleet, and the city walls. It recovered remarkably in the 4th century bc and led the resistance to Philip II of Macedonia. The city was...

Greece

Greece   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,258 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Athens and destroyed the Athenian empire in the Peloponnesian War . In the 4th century Thebes toppled Sparta, but Greece as a whole was soon forced to bow before an outside conqueror— Philip II of Macedonia. After the death of his son, Alexander III (the Great), the Greek world was dominated by the Hellenistic kingdoms with the cities of Greece playing comparatively minor parts in the power struggle. Then Rome intervened in the Macedonian wars , until the year 146 bc saw the defeat of the Achaean League , the sacking of Corinth, and the final...

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
176 words

... War , of 431–404 , fought between Athens and its allies ( see delian league ) on the one hand and Sparta and its allies ( see peloponnesian league ) on the other; most of it (down to 411 ) was recorded by Thucydides (2) , and that is the most interesting thing about it. The first ten years were the Archidamian War, a title first used by Lysias , as far as we know, for what Thucydides called the ‘ten‐years war’. This phase was ended by the inconclusive Peace of Nicias . The second main phase of the whole war, which Thucydides insisted on...

Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War (431–404)   Reference library

Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
373 words

... War , of 431–404 , fought between Athens and its allies ( see delian league ) on the one hand and Sparta and its allies ( see peloponnesian league ) on the other; most of it (down to 411 ) was recorded by the great historian Thucydides (2) and that is the most interesting thing about it. The first ten years were the Archidamian War , a title first used by Lysias , as far as we know, for what Thucydides called the ‘ten-years war’, 5. 25. 1. This phase was ended by the inconclusive Peace of Nicias (1) . (Strabo 13. 600 subdivides yet...

decarchies

decarchies   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
71 words

...were juntas, lit. ‘ten‐man rules’, established under the aegis of Lysander in parts of the former Athenian empire ( see delian league ) following Sparta's victory in the Peloponnesian War . They were absolute dictatorships, sometimes supported by a garrison under a Spartan commander known as a harmost. They collected their city's share of the war‐tax levied by Sparta and in other ways functioned as instruments of Sparta's short‐lived Aegean...

alliance (Greek)

alliance (Greek)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
234 words

...follow Sparta's lead. The Peloponnesian League , built up by Sparta in the second half of the 6th cent. bc , was the first instance of a league of allies united for purposes of foreign policy. Such leagues tended to be formed with a dominant state as leader, influential through possession of executive power even if not formally privileged in decision‐making, and with a council which played a part in decision‐making and enabled representatives of the member states to express opinions and vote. Other examples were the Delian League , the Second Athenian...

Cleomenes (1) I

Cleomenes (1) I   Reference library

Paul Anthony Cartledge

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
403 words

...to his design, that the Peloponnesian League came formally into existence. He embroiled Thebes (1) with Athens and frustrated Thebes’ plans for a united Boeotian federation by referring Plataea to Athens for alliance (probably in 519 : Thuc. 3. 68). He intervened twice successfully in Athenian affairs, overthrowing the Peisistratid tyranny of Hippias (1) in 510 and expelling Cleisthenes (2) in favour of Isagoras in 508 . But his attempt to restore Isagoras by a concerted expedition of Sparta's Peloponnesian and central Greek allies in ...

Mantinea, Battle of

Mantinea, Battle of   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
303 words

...a long time among the Greek states”—so Thucydides described the famous Battle of Mantinea of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides 5.74.1). The Peace of Nicias ended the war in 421 bce , but few combatants were satisfied. A diplomatic revolution followed as states sought new allies and opportunities. The result of this shuffling of alliances was the Battle of Mantinea in 418 , a Spartan move to suppress the defection of Mantinea, a member of its Peloponnesian League, to Athens. Not only one of the biggest battles fought by the Greeks, Mantinea also gives a...

Cleomenes I

Cleomenes I   Quick reference

Paul Anthony Cartledge

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
344 words

...according to his design, that the Peloponnesian League came formally into existence. He embroiled Thebes with Athens and frustrated Thebes' plans for a united Boeotian federation by referring Plataea to Athens for alliance (probably in 519 : Thuc. 3. 68). He intervened twice successfully in Athenian affairs, overthrowing the tyranny of Hippias (son of Pisistratus ) in 510 and expelling Cleisthenes in favour of Isagoras in 508 . But his attempt to restore Isagoras by a concerted expedition of Sparta's Peloponnesian and central Greek allies in c. 506 ...

Scione

Scione   Reference library

Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
236 words

...the tip of the western (Pallene) peninsula of Chalcidice , south-east of modern Nea Skioni. Chance finds include coins and walls. Thucydides (2) (4. 120) says it was a settlement of Peloponnesians from Pellene in Achaea , but there was also a tradition that Protesilaus was the founder. Scione normally paid 6 talents tribute to Athens in the time of the Delian League . Its most famous hour was its enthusiastic but unwise reception of the Spartan Brasidas in 423 bc (Thuc. 4. 121. 1); this led to harsh Athenian reprisals instigated by Cleon (Thuc....

Dyme

Dyme   Reference library

Catherine A. Morgan

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
214 words

...Helladic fortification and settlement has been excavated at Teichos Dymaion (mod. Kalogria). Dyme's Archaic and Classical history remains obscure (the city survives chiefly in its Hellenistic and early Roman form). The Peloponnesian fleet took refuge there after its defeat in 429 bc , and the city was liberated from its Peloponnesian League garrison by Epaminondas in 367 . In c. 280 Dyme joined Patrae in reviving the Achaean Confederacy after its dissolution by Macedon. In 208 it was sacked by P. Sulpicius Galba Maximus as punishment for its...

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