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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Balkan States

Balkan States   Reference library

Đermana Šeta

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,420 words

...unequal status in society as part of the class issue. Women therefore gained equality before the law, the right to vote and work, and many other rights, although their implementation faced resistance stemming from traditionally defined gender roles. The feminist movement also started being more active around the 1970s, appearing in its most prominent form in Yugoslavia, which had more open borders compared to other countries in the Communist bloc. The feminist approach was attacked for being bourgeois and it was claimed that the socialist emancipation of...

Microfinance

Microfinance   Reference library

Clinton Bennett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,184 words

...involved in traveling through rural areas. Some point out that not everyone can launch a small business; thus, as a panacea to eliminate all poverty, microfinance falls short. It rarely results in creating large numbers of actual jobs. Some opponents of the bank claim that it is part of a Christian conspiracy to undermine Islamic values and practices, including purdah . Critics say that it exploits women, because the type of work they do earns relatively little money. Some men tell women that, if they join the bank, they are “bad Muslims” (Yunus 1999,...

Muhājirūn

Muhājirūn   Reference library

Anis Ahmad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,313 words

...group, founded on self-claimed muhājir identity in Pakistan, namely muttaḥida muhājir movement ( muhājir alliance) evolved into muttaḥida qawmī movement (national alliance). In the North American and European context, those who at one time regarded themselves as muhājir , while proud of maintaining their cultural and religious identity, are going through a process of integration. Many of these Muslim women retain their practice of wearing head scarves, use of ʿabāyah (long shirt), or kaftans. Some cover part of their face as part of their religious...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Iram Nisa Asif

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,741 words

...and TV media. Most effectively, using methods of collective mobilization, women in Pakistan have claimed a female voice in male-dominated discourses by seizing upon public places and spaces: the scene of the street as disseminated by the media. With this in view, both Islamic and secular women can be seen as proactive agents in the national public sphere, exposing the limits of the political and linking the spectacular and theatrical with their claims to authority as they critique corruption, nepotism, and inequality in society and in the state...

Homosexual/Queer

Homosexual/Queer   Reference library

Joseph A. Marchal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,423 words

...direct and confrontational mode. Homosexual liberation, for instance, aimed at removing homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a psychiatric pathology, staking a claim to variation, but also some normalcy in this variation. Queer, on the other hand, affirms claims about abnormality and strangeness, but reverses claims that such abnormality is problematic. Still, both kinds of action interrogate the authority of classifying disciplines. It may just be that homosexual and queer connote different settings and thus...

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...in part as political leadership. He is hailed as a king (e.g., Matt 2:2 ; John 1:49 ; 6:15 ; 12:13 ) and is executed under the charge “the king of the Jews” ( Matt 27:37 ; Mark 15:26 ; Luke 23:38 ; John 19:19 ). Many interpreters read elements of Jesus’s ministry as making political claims. For example, Jesus’s casting a “legion” into the sea in the story of the Gerasene demoniac is often viewed as a critique of the Roman government, whose armies were divided into “legions” ( Mark 5:1–20 ). Many interpreters understand the claim that Jesus...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...Since polyandry was not practiced, the prohibition refers to marriage to one’s father’s former wife. The purpose of this law may have been to stop the practice of sons laying claim to their father’s wives after they died (see 1 Kgs 2:13–25 ). In Deuteronomy 27:20 , 22–23 , sex with three categories of female kin (father’s wife, sister or half-sister, and mother-in-law) are part of the list of sins that often escape detection that, if committed, result in a self-imposed curse in the communal self-imprecations of Deuteronomy 27:14–26 . Ezekiel ...

Male-Female Sexuality

Male-Female Sexuality   Reference library

Rhiannon Graybill, Giulia Sissa, Bradford A. Kirkegaard, Yii-Jan Lin, Tirzah Meacham, and Kathy L. Gaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,472 words

...The lost object is a reference to the man’s missing side in the second creation story ( b. Nid. 31b ). The missing side is, in part, restored during coitus. Genesis 2:24–25 states, “Hence a man leaves his father and his mother and clings to his wife, so that they become one flesh. They were both naked and not ashamed.” Although Midrash Rabbah attempts to harmonize the second creation story ( Gen 2:24–25 ) with the first by claiming that the Hebrew word tzalotav refers to a side of the sanctuary rather than Adam’s rib, this notion of creation informed the...

Real Estate

Real Estate   Reference library

Sabrina Joseph

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,919 words

...study of how the practice of property exchange or transfer as it affects women often diverges from Islamic law, with women's claims to property rights depending on their social status, class background, and how they gain access to property. Shatzmiller, Maya . Her Day in Court: Women's Property Rights in Fifteenth-Century Granada . Cambridge, Mass. Islamic Legal Studies Program, Harvard Law School, 2007. Part 1 of the book deals most explicitly with the exchange, sale, and/or transfer of real estate to women and how such transactions impacted...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,470 words

...values of the institution of family, which, in the context of a rapidly rising urban society, suffered major disruption. While men were at war, a shortage of labor to assist social programs promised by the social justice claim of the Ayatollah during the revolution occurred and volunteers were needed. For this reason, women became part of the social landscape, paving the way for the massive presence of women in the public sphere, this time not just from the secular middle class, but also from the religious segments and low-income households. Ironically,...

Paul

Paul   Reference library

Kathy Ehrensperger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,716 words

...it. Thus, Elliott ( 2008 ) has advocated that Pauline discourse, although resonating with imperial ideology, claimed its key terminology for characteristics of life in Christ and thus challenged and subverted the imperial ideology and its totalizing claims. An alternative to the imperial ideology and domination is thus being formulated and, rather than replicating the domination system, Paul’s discourse radically subverted it. Elliott’s approach is part of an interpretive tradition indebted to scholars such as Georgi ( 1997 ). Paul’s embeddedness in Judaism is...

Ramadan, Tariq

Ramadan, Tariq (b. 1962)   Reference library

Joseph A. Kéchichian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,391 words

...organizations designated as terrorist fund-raising groups for their alleged links to Ḥamās. On July 17, 2009, a federal appeals court reversed the government's decision, and on January 20, 2010, after more than five years of waiting, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton lifted the ban that prohibited Ramadan from entering the United States. On April 8, 2010, Ramadan spoke as part of a panel discussion at the Great Hall of Cooper Union in New York City, his first public appearance in the United States after the ban was lifted. Ramadan believes in a...

Jordan

Jordan   Reference library

Susan MacDougall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,138 words

...on Jordanian and Islamic customs. Jordan's government is a constitutional monarchy, with an elected 120-member House of Representatives ( majlis al-nawwāb ) and a 60-member Senate ( majlis al-‘ayyan ), whose membership is by royal appointment. The reigning Hashemite monarchy claim descent from the Prophet Muḥammad, and Islam is the religion of the state according to the constitution. The 1976 Personal Status Law, based on the Ḥanafī school of Islamic law, governs family relations such as marriage, divorce, and custody, and includes several provisions...

Womanist Criticism

Womanist Criticism   Reference library

Valerie Bridgeman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,565 words

... essay claims that womanist biblical work is not limited to those trained in Bible. As stressed throughout this entry, womanists are deeply concerned that their work speak to black churchgoers—for whom the biblical has primacy—a reality that leads womanist scholars of every discipline to address directly biblical texts. No longer content only to reclaim an African past from the text and lift up the marginalized in the text, modern womanist work considers how texts make plain and obscure meanings, the intersectionality of oppressions, and how claims are made...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...the ultimate Deuteronomic prophet was a woman—Huldah ( 2 Kgs 22:14–20 ). She interpreted for King Josiah the meaning of the book of Torah he had just discovered and issued the Deuteronomic prediction of the end of the Kingdom of Judah based on the failure of its citizens to correctly observe its precepts. The fate of prophecy in the Second Temple period is debated. Rabbinic Jewish tradition claims that the last of the prophets died with Malachi (ca. 400 b.c.e. ), but Christians claim that Jesus was a prophet (e.g., Matt 13:57 ; 14:5 ). When the...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...Leviticus 18 and 20 , which are part of the Holiness Code, contain the only exhortation against same-sex intercourse in the Hebrew Bible. Leviticus 18:22 states, “Do not lie with a man the ‘lyings’ of women; it is an abhorrence ( to‘evah ).” Along with the other sexual prohibitions in Leviticus 18 , this prohibition is reiterated in Leviticus 20 : “If a man lies with a male the ‘lyings’ of women, the two of them have done an abhorrent thing; they shall both be put to death—their bloodguilt is upon them” ( Lev 20:13 ). This prohibition has...

Legal Status

Legal Status   Reference library

Julye Bidmead, F. Rachel Magdalene, Lauren Caldwell, Robert N. Stegmann, Judith Hauptman, and David M. Reis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,375 words

...women were considered house-born slaves and generally deemed fatherless, without the right of inheritance. Abraham goes beyond these rules, claiming Ishmael by naming him ( Gen 16:15 ) as he does Isaac ( Gen 21:3 ). Sarah recognizes Ishmael’s inheritance right in Genesis 21:10 , which leads her to cast out Hagar and Ishmael ( Gen 21:9–21 ). Adultery laws do not apply in the same way to betrothed slave women ( Lev 19:20–22 ). In such cases, neither the man nor the woman would be executed but the paramour instead paid the owner compensation and brought a...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

Hatoon Al-Fassi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,743 words

...War. In 1974, oil prices boomed. Since then, oil has become a major factor in the relationship between power and modernity. Women and Modernity. Women's status in Saudi Arabia was formed in part by its sacred spatial location as the cradle of Islam. The government, therefore, carries a sacred responsibility for protecting the holy sites, leading some to claim that Saudi Arabia is the only true representative of Islam, following a strict adherence to the Qurʾān’, sunnah , and Ḥanbalī school of Islamic law. At the same time, Saudi Arabia was faced with...

Arab Spring

Arab Spring   Reference library

Farhad Khosrokhavar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,193 words

...the notorious wife of President Zine Ben Ali, Leila Trabelsi, was the president of the Arab Woman Organization), but were not allowed to have independent institutions. In Egypt the former first lady Suzanne Mubarak was supposed to embody women's claims, yet again she did not allow autonomous action on their part in favor of emancipation. In other words the authoritarian period witnessed women's rights offered to them rather than won over by them in their struggle for equality and freedom. This resulted in women being suspected of “collaborating” with the...

Investment and Commerce, Women's: Historical Practices

Investment and Commerce, Women's: Historical Practices   Reference library

Natana J. DeLong-Bas and Sara Bazoobandi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,614 words

...Sharia Court of Anatolian Kayseri.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 18, Part 1 (1975). Lutfi, Huda . “Al-Sakhawi's Kitab al-Nisaʾ as a Source for the Social and Economic History of Muslim Women during the Fifteenth Century A.D.” Muslim World 71, no. 2 (1981): 104–124. Marcus, Abraham . “Men, Women and Property: Dealers in Real Estate in Eighteenth-Century Aleppo.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 26, Part 2 (1983). Rapoport, Yossef . Marriage, Money and Divorce in Medieval Islamic Society . New York and...

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