You are looking at 1-20 of 53 entries  for:

  • All: Part 20 claim x
  • Regional and Area Studies x
clear all

View:

Overview

Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Wakālah al-Khāṣṣah, al-

Wakālah al-Khāṣṣah, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...al-taqlīd . Momen, Moojan . Introduction to Shīʿī Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiism . New Haven, Conn., 1984. See pages 161–165, 289. Momen, Moojan . “ The Trial of Mullā ʿAlī Basṭāmī: A Combined Sunnī-Shīʿī fatwā against the Bāb. ” Iran 20 (1982): 113–143. Discusses the Bāb 's claims. Moojan...

Ethnicity

Ethnicity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peninsula, claims to ethnic or tribal identity—the two notions are almost indistinguishable in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and the Gulf States—are usually framed in genealogical terms as descending from one of two eponymous ancestors. “Northern” Arabs claim descent from ʿAdnān; “southern” Arabs, including those who speak Semitic languages other than Arabic, claim Qaḥṭān as their ancestor. The possibility for some groups of claiming either ʿAdnān or Qaḥṭān as eponymous ancestors allows for flexibility in making descent claims, although...

Aḥmadīyah

Aḥmadīyah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,281 words

...Muslims who preached violent jihād : not only did they distort an essential part of Islamic teaching, but also assisted Christian missionaries in misrepresenting Islam as a religion committed to expansion by violent means; the only jihād sanctioned by Islam is spreading the faith by preaching and persuasion. Summary. The dispute between the Aḥmadīyah and mainstream Sunnī Islam stems from different approaches to the question of religious authority. As a messianic movement claiming a certain kind of prophethood for its founder and continuous divine...

Anavatan Partisi

Anavatan Partisi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,365 words

...They challenged the theory of evolution, claiming that it served only materialism; like the creationists in America, they wanted “the errors of the theory of evolution exposed and what the Holy Books said about creation to be taught.” The Istanbul daily Cumhuriyet (September 9, 1985) noted that Islamization of education was causing confusion: “Religion speaks of creation, science of evolution: the students are confused as to what to believe.” For ANAP, state support for religious education was also part of its strategy of remaining in power. Qurʿānic...

Messianism

Messianism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,890 words

...at Mecca in 1495 with the claim to be the Mahdī while performing the circumambulation of the Kaʿbah. On his return to India he reasserted his claim in the mosque of Tāj Khān Sālār at Ahmadabad, and then again with renewed vigor and force in 1499 in a village called Barhli in Gujarat. In the hagiographical sources the names of his parents have been given as those of the parents of the Prophet, ʿAbd Allāh and Amīnah , in order to justify his claim to be the Mahdī. The Ḥanafī jurists of Gujarat challenged him to prove his claim and took effective steps to...

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,095 words

...He devoted the rest of his life to teaching, research, and writing. Sanhūrī articulated his theoretical approach of legal reform in Le Califat: Son évolution vers une société des nations orientale (Paris, 1926 ). Unlike ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq , who claimed that political authority was not an integral part of Islam, Sanhūrī considered the restoration of the caliphate a necessity, signifying the unity of Muslims and the preservation of the law. To reflect prevailing conditions, he made a distinction between an irregular (temporary) and a regular caliphate....

Tawḥīd

Tawḥīd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,646 words

...al-wujūd (the unity of all being). Ibn al-ʿArabī claims that there is only one Reality, also known by various other names, such as the one Real, the one Truth, and the one Essence. There is only one Real, by virtue of participation in which everything else exists. Thus God is in all creation, but is not identified with creation. No part contains the totality, nor is the totality simply a sum of the parts. Creation is God's self-manifestation. Employing the Neoplatonic emanationist scheme, Ibn al-ʿArabī claims the First Intelligence represents the perfect...

Fitnah

Fitnah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,818 words

...him and delegate the affairs of that place to him, to avoid fitnah and guarantee Muslim unity. The appearance of a claim to be the Mahdī was seen as a clear invitation to fitnah , so medieval monarchs were instructed to see it as their duty to punish condignly such claimants. The pious sultan Fīrūz Shāh of Delhi ( d. 1388 ) proudly records that he executed a man who claimed to be the Mahdī but only imprisoned a man who claimed to be God. Ibn Khaldūn ( d. 1406 ) regards the whole Mahdī idea as an occasion for fitnah and argues that it has no real...

Muhājirūn

Muhājirūn   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,141 words

...or how to contribute to social and intellectual development generally, in a secular society of the West. Finally, the question of nationhood is raised: Do they become part of another national community or remain distinct within it? The Jewish emigrants, long before the Muslim migrants, faced these issues in North America and elsewhere. Needless to say, the new muhājirūn have been an integral part of the cultural mosaic and civil society of North America, Europe, Australia, and elsewhere for over a century. An ongoing discourse is taking place on these and...

Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr al-Islāmī

Ḥizb al-Taḥrīr al-Islāmī   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,082 words

...War of Ideas, ” Foreign Affairs , 84: 6 (2005), 68–78. Mayer, Jean-François . “Hizb ut-Tahrir. The Next Al-Qaida, Really?” Program for the Study of International Organization(s) [PSIO, Geneva] Occasional Paper 4 (2004). http://hei.unige.ch/psio/fichiers/Meyer%20Al%20Qaida.pdf . Investigates the claim that the party 's radical discourse and anti-Americanism translate into a potential for international terrorism, detailing its condemnation of al-Qaʿida terrorist attacks in the West. Radical Islam in Central Asia: Responding to Hizb ut-Tahrir. International...

Amal

Amal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,784 words

...States. Since the election of a pro-Western cabinet in 2005 the Amal leader has applied his leadership skills and constitutional prerogatives to help deter any efforts on the part of the government, its March 14th supporters, and foreign backers to eliminate Syrian influence in Lebanon and to disarm Ḥizbullāh and Amal cadres. Amal's rank-and-file members play their own part in this strategy by adding their considerable weight in numbers to the opposition coalition formed in the fall of 2006 to challenge the government. Spearheaded by Ḥizbullāh, the...

Tablīgh

Tablīgh   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,630 words

...your duty is only to convey the message” ( 3:20 ). Moreover, “Had God willed, they had not been idolatrous. We have not set you as a keeper over them, nor are you responsible for them” ( 6:106 ). According to the Qurʿān, “There is no compulsion in religion; truth is henceforth distinct from falsehood” ( 2:256 ). A preacher's duty is to communicate, warn, and remind others to follow the truth. Tablīgh in this sense implies an association with the concept of miracle as God's sign in support of a prophet's claim. Max L. Stackhouse explains that missionary...

Jordan

Jordan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...end of World War I, this area had been part of greater Syria under Ottoman rule. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 the Allied powers divided the Middle East into spheres of influence, with Transjordan and Palestine under British mandate and trusteeship. In 1946 Transjordan achieved independence to become the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, with Prince Abdullah ibn al-Hussein its first monarch ( r. 1921–1951 ). The Hashemite family hails from the Hejaz in Arabia and claims legitimacy to rule based in part on its descent from the Prophet...

Masjumi

Masjumi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,046 words

...in second with 20.9 percent, closely followed by the NU with 18.4 percent. The 1955 election, however, showed the Masjumi to be by far the strongest party outside Java and in the ethnically Sundanese province of West Java. It polled poorly in East and Central Java, the home provinces of the ethnic Javanese who made up about 45 percent of the Indonesian population. After 1952 , therefore, the Masjumi represented regional as well as religious aspirations. During the 1950s discontent had been growing against what many non-Javanese claimed was “Javanese...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,484 words
Illustration(s):
1

...are Sunnī. In addition, there are various Shīʿī groups, including Ismāʿ īlīs and Twelvers. It is estimated that Sunnīs are in the majority (about 70 percent), followed by Ismāʿīlīs (20 percent), with Twelvers and other groups such as the Druze and Ahmadīs (Qādiānīs) accounting for the balance. The Muslim population of Canada is ethnically diverse as well. Some 90 percent claim a single ethnic origin. Of these nearly 80 percent are of Asian and North African descent, including Indo-Pakistanis (numerically the most dominant), followed next by West Asian and...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Islam in Germany). Graz: Verlag Styria, 1981. Written for a broad public, without references and unreliable, but still the only book claiming to describe the history of Islam in Germany. Denffer, Ahmad von , ed. Islam hier und heute (Islam Here and Now). Cologne: Verlag Islamische Bibliothek Rassoul, 1981. Hanisch, Ludmila . Die Nachfolger der Exegeten: Deutschsprachige Erforschung des Vorderen Orients in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts (The Successors of the Exegetes: German-Speaking Research on the Near East in the First Half of the Twentieth...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Charles Amjad-ali

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,357 words

... (or a ‘Sevener’ Shia, which are part of the sectarian Shia tradition), not to be confused with the ‘Ithna ashari’ (or twelvers) who represent an absolute majority of Shias. When Pakistan declared itself an Islamic Republic with the publishing of its first constitution in 1956 , after nine years of protracted struggle, it was a unique entity on the world scene. Prior to this, no Muslim state in the modern world had presumed to use this title for itself. The history of Christianity in Pakistan was, until 1947 , necessarily part of the history of the church in...

Minorities

Minorities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
8,101 words
Illustration(s):
5

... (vicegerents) with honor and dignity in their human person and with equal claims to the rubūbīyah (sustainership) of God. They are entitled to the hidāyah (guidance) from God and, like all children of Adam, are exalted with the power of choice (the ability to say no), thereby attaining a status higher than that of the angels. Murad Hoffman refers to the collection of these rules and injunctions as the Qurʿānic Minority Statute ( Islam , p. 168). If Muslims are living as part of non-Muslim communities, their treatment by the non-Muslim majority is...

Islamic Republican Party

Islamic Republican Party   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,803 words

...irregularities were rampant. The result was an impressive success for the IRP and the independent Islamic elements. About half of those elected in the first round in March and more than half in the second round of elections in May were part of the IRP coalition. Rafsanjānī was elected speaker of the Majlis (parliament) on July 20, 1980. IRP control of the parliament presented an added challenge to Bani Sadr. The IRP and the president clashed over many issues, including the choice of a prime minister and cabinet heads. Muḥammad ʿAlī Rajāʿī , a Majlis deputy from...

Zakāt

Zakāt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,569 words

...over the responsibility of collecting and distributing zakāt . The law left part of the zakāt to the individual payers to distribute themselves. Second, regional zakāt offices were to be established to work in collecting and distributing zakāt in addition to the central chamber in Khartoum. Under the Islamic National Salvation government that came to power in 1989 , the zakāt system entered a new phase. Zakāt became one of the prime focuses of the new government as part of its overall objective of fully applying sharīʿah as the source of public...

View: