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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Wakālah al-Khāṣṣah, al-

Wakālah al-Khāṣṣah, al-   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...al-taqlīd . Momen, Moojan . Introduction to Shīʿī Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiism . New Haven, Conn., 1984. See pages 161–165, 289. Momen, Moojan . “ The Trial of Mullā ʿAlī Basṭāmī: A Combined Sunnī-Shīʿī fatwā against the Bāb. ” Iran 20 (1982): 113–143. Discusses the Bāb 's claims. Moojan...

Inumaki, Kenji

Inumaki, Kenji (1943)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Kenji Japanese , 20th century, male. Born 1943 , in Osaka. Painter , engraver , sculptor . Inumaki studied sculpture at the teacher training college in Kyoto. After completing his studies, he turned to two-dimensional art, fascinated by problems of pictorial and surface space. His art claims to be neutral in the repetition of simple forms, but proves to be quite attractive beneath an apparent dryness. Lines of movement, created from the clever play of medium on the monochrome surface, break up the austere appearance. He has taken part in numerous group...

Mana Zucca

Mana Zucca (25 Dec 1885)   Reference library

Judith Tick

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
485 words

..., she began to publish her compositions. Her privately issued catalog of published works lists approximately 390 titles (all undated), though she claimed to have published around 1100 works and to have written 1000 more. Included in the catalog are the operas Hypatia and Queue of Ki-Lu (both c 1920 ), the Piano Concerto op.49 ( 1919 ) and Violin Concerto op.224 ( 1955 ), 172 songs, three choral works, more than 20 chamber works, and numerous educational pieces. She was a gifted melodist. Many of her songs were performed by leading singers in the 1920s and...

Armenia

Armenia (Colombia)   Quick reference

Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Place Names (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Republic ( 1936–91 ), and part of the Transcaucasus Soviet Federative Socialist Republic ( March 1922 ) which joined the USSR nine months later; the Soviet Republic of Armenia ( 1920–2 ); and the independent Republic of Armenia ( 1918–20 ). The present republic represents a fraction of historical Greater Armenia which included extensive territory in modern eastern Turkey, and parts of modern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. The Armenian name means the ‘Land of Hayk’, Noah’s great-great-grandson from whom the Armenians claim descent. The Armenians call...

onions

onions   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...tobacconists and onion sellers were largely immune. The same belief leads some people to think it unlucky or dangerous to keep a cut, raw onion, for fear it might attract illness into the house from the outside air; any unused part, and even the peelings, must be thrown out at once. An idea common among schoolchildren in the 19th and 20th centuries was that if you rubbed raw onion on to your palm, the pain of being caned on the hand would be much lessened, or, even better, the cane would split in half (cf. hair , animal). Love divinations involving onions...

revival

revival   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...is at best ambiguous and open to further debate. Victorian and Edwardian reformers were expert in the art of ‘revivals’ which, while claiming to be genuinely traditional, were either invented or changed so radically as to retain only a tenuous connection with the original source ( see Merrie England ), but which helped to create a generalized notion of a ‘national’ traditional culture belonging to all. At the end of the 20th century, the same processes appeared to be still in force. See also DANCE , FAKELORE , REGIONAL FOLKLORE , SONG REVIVAL , TOURIST...

Wickenden, Robert

Wickenden, Robert (8 July 1861)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
490 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and Charles Jacque reveal that no one in America had a better knowledge of these artists, whom Wickenden emphatically claimed as his influences. His first exhibited works were Interior in the Forest of Fontainebleau and Woman Gleaning in the Forest at the Paris Salon of 1884 . In 1885 and 1886 , he was in New York exhibiting at the National Academy, the American Art Association and the Watercolor Society. In 1886 , he also took part in the exhibitions of the French Gallery and the Dudley Gallery in London. On returning to Paris, he sent oils and...

Patassé, Ange-Félix

Patassé, Ange-Félix   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

..., Patassé had lost public confidence, and state officials threatened to overthrow him and hold new elections. Nevertheless, Patassé was reelected in the 1999 presidential election despite claims from the opposition that voting was rigged. After several coup attempts, he was deposed in March 2003 by Bozizé and went into exile in Togo. In 2006 he was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor for stealing from the treasury. But in 2008 he was allowed back by the government to participate in a national dialogue. Rather than depose Bozizé, Patassé intends to...

Wayditch, Gabriel von

Wayditch, Gabriel von (28 Dec 1888)   Reference library

Frank J. Oteri

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
480 words

...in ancient times, or on other planets. His last opera, The Heretics , lasts eight and a half hours and is claimed as the longest opera ever written. Interest in Wayditch has grown since his death. Performances by the Budapest PO and San Diego SO of two of his early operas, The Caliph's Magician and Jesus before Herod , recorded in the 1970s were released on LP by Musical Heritage Society and re-issued on CD in 1995 by VAI Audio. In 2009 , as part of the Hungarian Cultural Center's Extremely Hungary festival at the Brooklyn Art Museum, an evening...

Rice, Daddy

Rice, Daddy (20 May 1808)   Reference library

Robert B. Winans

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
475 words

...and topical humor. Jim Crow was the first example of what became a stock character in minstrelsy, that of the Southern plantation field hand, who was not only naive and fun-loving but also boastful, like the frontiersman or river boatman. Dance was an essential part of the act, and it has been claimed to be the first clear use of African American dance on the popular stage. Rice also added other blackface songs to his repertory, such as “Clare de Kitchen” and “Long Time Ago.” Rice created a new genre of popular entertainment, the “Ethiopian opera,” which...

Mitsunaga

Mitsunaga   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Painter . Scenes with figures, genre scenes. Mitsunaga was at one time thought to belong to the famous Tosa line of court painters. During the Edo period ( 1693–1867 ), artists keen to display their ascendancy in the imperial workshop, turned to the 12th century and claimed Mitsunaga as ‘Mitsunaga Tosa’. However, more recent studies have shown that the Tosas did not appear until much later and that this artist's real name was Mitsunaga Tokiwa. He worked during a renaissance of imperial power in Japan: the end of the 11th century had seen the decline...

Saban, Ody

Saban, Ody (1953)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Ody or Odet Turkish , 20th – 21st century, female. Active in France. Born 1953 , in Istanbul. Painter , watercolourist , draughtswoman , sculptor , mixed media , performance artist . Art Brut. Art-Cloche Group. Saban studied restoration in Istanbul, sculpture in Tel Aviv and painting in Haifa, and from 1977 to 1980 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. She was a member of the Art-Cloche group, which was established in 1981 and occupied a squat in the Rue Arcueil in Paris; this informal group claimed Dada and Fluxus as its sources of...

Kabila, Joseph

Kabila, Joseph (1971– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...his rule has been characterized by political instability, with a number of failed coup attempts and ongoing insurgencies. Having served the constitutional limit of two terms in office, Joseph Kabila was due to step down on 20 December 2016 , but he has effectively prolonged his stay in office by continually postponing elections, claiming that the conditions do not exist for them to be held. This strategy, which has come to be popularly known as glissement , has further eroded his popularity both at home and...

Wilson, Brian

Wilson, Brian (20 June 1942)   Reference library

Ryan R. McNutt

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
612 words

...Brian ( Douglas ) ( b Inglewood, CA , 20 June 1942 ). Songwriter and producer . As the musical leader of the Beach boys during the 1960s, Wilson penned a series of massively successful hits that expanded the sound palette of radio pop. Though he subsequently struggled with mental illness and drug abuse, a late career revival brought with it recognition as one of the most important popular songwriters of the 20th century. Wilson and his younger brothers Dennis and Carl grew up in Hawthorne, California. Their father Murray Wilson, occasionally...

Colum Cille

Colum Cille   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Ireland. The Danes stole them in 1127 but later restored them, after which they were lost. Colum Cille's earliest biographer was St Adamnán , who wrote a century after his subject's death. In the 20th century Colum Cille's career has been the subject of scholarly dispute, notably by W. D. Simpson, The Historical St. Columba ( 1927 ), who doubted the claim that the saint had been the apostle of northern Scotland. Two more recent studies are Ian Finlay, St. Columba (London, 1982 ) and Máire Herbert , Iona, Kells, and Derry (Oxford, New York, 1988 )....

Ethnicity

Ethnicity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Peninsula, claims to ethnic or tribal identity—the two notions are almost indistinguishable in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, and the Gulf States—are usually framed in genealogical terms as descending from one of two eponymous ancestors. “Northern” Arabs claim descent from ʿAdnān; “southern” Arabs, including those who speak Semitic languages other than Arabic, claim Qaḥṭān as their ancestor. The possibility for some groups of claiming either ʿAdnān or Qaḥṭān as eponymous ancestors allows for flexibility in making descent claims, although...

Sarkis

Sarkis (1964)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of Asian Artists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... (Magiciens de la terre), Centre Beaubourg, Paris ( 1989 ); The 1970s: Art in Question (Les Années 70: l'art en cause), Capc Musée d'Art Contemporain, Bordeaux ( 2002 ); The State of Things (L'état des choses), as part of Public Treasury, 20 Years of Creation in the Regional Collection of Contemporary Art (FRAC) (Trésors publics, 20 ans de création dans les Fonds régionaux d'art contemporain (FRAC)), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes ( 2003 ) and exhibitions looking at the status of everyday objects in contemporary art. Solo exhibitions, installations or...

Labeling

Labeling   Reference library

Kantha Shelke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...defects. These claims are statements that alert consumers to a product's health potential by stating that certain foods or food substances as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce the risk of certain diseases. Examples include folic acid in breakfast cereals, fiber in fruits and vegetables, calcium in dairy products, and calcium or folic acid in some dietary supplements. Food and food substances can qualify for health claims only if they meet FDA requirements, including sufficient scientific agreement among qualified experts that the claims are factual and...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,374 words
Illustration(s):
2

...conflict, however, was with Ethiopia. In May 1998 , a border skirmish erupted into a full-scale war. Ostensibly, the war was fought over a few barren hectares of loosely defined border which Eritrea claims that Ethiopia had been encroaching on, and taxing its people. The war cost the lives of at least 50,000 people, and the displacement of 20 per cent of the Eritrean population. Already one of the world’s poorest countries, Eritrea was brought to ruin by the war, as the state could not fulfil fundamental needs such as education and basic medical...

Aḥmadīyah

Aḥmadīyah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,281 words

...Muslims who preached violent jihād : not only did they distort an essential part of Islamic teaching, but also assisted Christian missionaries in misrepresenting Islam as a religion committed to expansion by violent means; the only jihād sanctioned by Islam is spreading the faith by preaching and persuasion. Summary. The dispute between the Aḥmadīyah and mainstream Sunnī Islam stems from different approaches to the question of religious authority. As a messianic movement claiming a certain kind of prophethood for its founder and continuous divine...

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