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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Individualism

Individualism   Reference library

Anas Malik

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,637 words

...influences claims about individualism in Islam, yet this influence sometimes goes uninterrogated, making genuine dialogue more difficult. From a spectrum of possible understandings, this essay presumes that “individualism” asserts individual agency and emphasizes protections for individual choice, particularly when those choices diverge from collective preferences. Claims about the Islamic understanding of these two areas thus speak to the topic of individualism and Islam. Recognition of the capacity for individual choice rests in part on claims about human...

Aḥmadīyah

Aḥmadīyah   Reference library

Yohanan Friedmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,287 words

...Muslims who preached violent jihād : they not only distorted an essential part of Islamic teaching, but also assisted Christian missionaries in misrepresenting Islam as a religion committed to expansion by violent means; the only jihād sanctioned by Islam is spreading the faith by preaching and persuasion. Summary. The dispute between the Aḥmadīyah and mainstream Sunnī Islam stems from different approaches to the question of religious authority. As a messianic movement claiming a certain kind of prophethood for its founder and continuous divine...

Jamāʿat al-Islāmīyah, al-

Jamāʿat al-Islāmīyah, al-   Reference library

Ibrahim Ibrahim, Joseph A. Kéchichian, and Nael Shama

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,484 words

...the government claimed these were instigated by members of al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah, although dormant rivalries probably contributed to the malaise. Third, by late 1992 , extremist elements in al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah claimed responsibility for at least two attacks on foreign tourists visiting pharaonic monuments in Upper Egypt. The government claimed al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmīyah was pursuing a new strategy to disrupt the tourist trade to damage and weaken the national economy. Attacks on foreign tourists continued throughout the 1990s. In part to address such...

Secularism and Religion

Secularism and Religion   Reference library

Steven Kettell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,362 words

...around reproductive rights and equality issues have all, from the latter years of the 20th century , featured highly on national political agendas. Supporters of a role for religion in public life maintain that religion provides a range of valuable public goods and gives individuals a sense of meaning and identity. As such, they argue that efforts to keep religion out of the public sphere are illiberal, intolerant, and undemocratic. Secularists, on the other hand, claim that the separation of church and state provides the best framework for upholding the...

Anavatan Partisi

Anavatan Partisi   Reference library

Feroz Ahmad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,361 words

...They challenged the theory of evolution, claiming that it served only materialism; like the creationists in America, they wanted “the errors of the theory of evolution exposed and what the Holy Books said about creation to be taught.” The Istanbul daily Cumhuriyet (9 September 1985) noted that Islamization of education was causing confusion: “Religion speaks of creation, science of evolution: the students are confused as to what to believe.” For ANAP, state support for religious education was also part of its strategy of remaining in power. Qurʿānic...

Fitnah

Fitnah   Reference library

John Alden Williams and Peri Bearman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,668 words

...appearance of a claim to be the Mahdī was seen as a clear invitation to fitnah , so rulers were instructed to punish such claimants fittingly. The Delhi Sultan Fīrūz Shāh (r. 1351–1388 ) proudly records that he executed a man who claimed to be the Mahdī but only imprisoned a man who claimed to be God. Ibn Khaldūn ( d. 1406 ) regards the whole Mahdī idea as an occasion for fitnah and argues that it has no real basis in Islam, because all of the ḥadīth s upon which it rests are spurious. This helps explain why in modern times those claiming to be the Mahdī...

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements

Human Trafficking and Religious Movements   Reference library

Yvonne C. Zimmerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,384 words

...movement as the heir of the 18th – 19th-century abolition movements calls not only on the moral claim-making of antislavery abolitionists, but also on that of social purity campaigners who sought to eliminate the provocatively termed “white slavery” at the turn of the 20th century . In fact, some consider white slavery as the foundation of the contemporary concept of human trafficking, if not a synonym for it. Jeffrey Barrows ( 2017 , p. 281) claims that “the sex trafficking of females [was] initially known as ‘white slavery.’” Choi-Fitzpatrick (...

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-

Sanhūrī, ʿAbd al-Razzāq al- (1895–1971)   Reference library

Emad El-Din Shahin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,147 words

...He devoted the rest of his life to teaching, research, and writing. Sanhūrī articulated his theoretical approach of legal reform in Le califat: Son évolution vers une société des nations orientales (Paris, 1926 ). Unlike ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Rāziq, who claimed that political authority was not an integral part of Islam, al-Sanhūrī considered the restoration of the Caliphate a necessity, signifying the unity of Muslims and the preservation of the law. To reflect prevailing conditions, he made a distinction between an irregular (temporary) and a regular...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

Ali Altaf Mian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,376 words

.... The political history of early Islam has often informed subsequent theological and sectarian disputes. The critical evaluation of the relationship between history, historical writing, and politics investigates also claims of identity, legitimacy, authenticity, and relations of power. In this synoptic essay, I begin by examining some of the trends of classical and medieval Islamic historiography, followed by a brief discussion of modern scholarship on early Islamic history, after which I conclude with methodological remarks on historiography by...

Alevis

Alevis   Reference library

David Shankland and Aykan Erdemir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,079 words

...century on, the term Alevi became a popular euphemism to refer to these groups, particularly owing to the pejorative connotations of the term Kızılbaş in conservative Sunnī parlance. The Ottoman political and religious establishment propaganda (since the sixteenth century) claimed that the Kızılbaş, who were supporters of the Ṣafavid rivals of the Ottomans, practiced incestuous orgies during their religious ceremonies. Beginning with the Alevi revival of the 1990s, however, Alevis started to reappropriate the word Kızılbaş and use it in affirmative...

Public Opinion and Religion: Environmental Attitudes in the United States

Public Opinion and Religion: Environmental Attitudes in the United States   Reference library

Jason M. Pudlo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,064 words

.... Berkeley University of California Press. Taylor, B. (2016). The greening of religion hypothesis (part one): From Lynn White, Jr. and claims that religions can promote environmentally destructive attitudes and behaviors to assertions they are becoming environmentally friendly . Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture , 10 (3), 268–305. Taylor, B. , Van Wieren, G. , & Zaleha, B. (2016a). The greening of religion hypothesis (part two): Assessing the data from Lynn White, Jr., to Pope Francis . Journal for the Study of Religion,...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Elmira Akhmetova

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,133 words

...The process of Islamic revival, which began in the early 1990s, made Muslims of Russia keenly aware of being part of the Islamic civilization and belonging to the worldwide Muslim ummah ; it helped them to overcome the inferiority complex developed during their time in the Russian Empire and later, during the Soviet period. Their religious awareness and appreciation of being Tatars, Bashkirs, Ingush, or Chechens not just as an ethnic group but a part of the great civilization had significantly increased. In Tatarstan, Islam contributed significantly in...

Religious Regulation in Iran

Religious Regulation in Iran   Reference library

Mehran Tamadonfar and Roman B. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,505 words

...reasons for this mistreatment. By subscribing to a “progressive” system of prophecy, and claiming Baha ‘Allah’s prophecy after Muhammad, Baha’is essentially dismissed one of the main pillars of Islam that establishes Muhammad as the seal of the prophecy (Islamic doctrine of nubuwwah ). 4 Furthermore, the Baha’is’ identification with the ruling regimes in Iran and their distaste for participation in revolutionary and progressive political movements, particularly in the 20th century , alienated them from both the religious traditionalists as well as progressive...

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research   Reference library

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,268 words

...; Storm, 2017 ). In other words, both poor and rich people are on average relatively religious in poor countries, but relatively secular in rich countries. This finding is incompatible with the Norris and Inglehart claim that individuals in general use religion as a means of compensating. A solution to this problem is to return to Weber and claim that poor and rich people use religion for different purposes: compensation and legitimation, respectively. A modern version of this argument can be found in Solt, Habel, and Grant ( 2011 ) . One way of interpreting...

Islamic Republican Party

Islamic Republican Party   Reference library

Eliz Sanasarian

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,794 words

...irregularities were rampant. The result was an impressive success for the IRP and the independent Islamic elements. About half of those elected in the first round in March and more than half in the second round of elections in May were part of the IRP coalition. Rafsanjānī was elected speaker of the Majlis (parliament) on 20 July 1980 . IRP control of the parliament presented an added challenge to Bani Sadr. The IRP and the president clashed over many issues, including the choice of a prime minister and cabinet heads. Muḥammad ʿAlī Rajāʿī, a Majlis deputy from...

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview

Terrorism and Religion: An Overview   Reference library

Peter Henne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,699 words

...its religious traditions. The claim that Islam and terrorism are connected remains influential in popular understandings of religion and terrorism. Despite the popularity of this view, many studies focus on undermining the claim that Islam drives or is connected to terrorism. Fox has also analyzed the relationship between Muslim populations and violence and found that Muslims are not necessarily more violent than other religious groups. Fox and others have also quantitatively tested the clash-of-civilizations argument and claimed that there little evidence of a...

Measuring Religion in Terms of Belonging, Beliefs, and Behavior

Measuring Religion in Terms of Belonging, Beliefs, and Behavior   Reference library

Corwin E. Smidt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
15,639 words

...doing so combines the use of born-again and Bible questions. Respondents who claim to be born-again and give a response to the Bible question that reflect that the Bible is God’s word (regardless of whether it to be viewed to be inerrant or not or thought to be taken literally or not) are classified as evangelical Protestants. Those who do not claim to be born-again but view the Bible as God’s word are classified as mainline Protestants. Djupe and Calfano ( 2014 , p. 23) note that 20% of those affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America believe...

Muslim Political History

Muslim Political History   Reference library

Ovamir Anjum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,493 words

...composed, universal, and absolutely essential for any claim of relationship to God, whose laws must be embraced in totality and without arbitrarily rejecting any of its parts, thus making it problematic for any political aspirant to claim authority, political or religious, except on its terms. Furthermore the Qurʾān's egalitarian teachings and its direct availability to ordinary believers without an authorized priesthood to interpret it made it difficult for political authorities to claim religious monopoly. The Caliphate. After the demise of the Prophet...

The Inclusion-Moderation Thesis: India’s BJP

The Inclusion-Moderation Thesis: India’s BJP   Reference library

Lars Tore Flåten

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
16,080 words

...However, the BJP has always claimed that it represents all Hindus and has constantly tried to communicate that an underlying sense of Hindu unity is far more important than divisions connected to caste, class, and region. Hence, this development does not contradict Hindu nationalist ideology. Such an interpretation is further strengthened if one looks at how the Modi government has failed to introduce legislation that protects religious minorities ( Kim, 2017 ). Moreover, it seems to be a deliberate strategy on the part of the BJP not to field Muslim...

Justice

Justice   Reference library

Andrew F. March

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
5,750 words

...the characteristics of a just ruler are, what claims of justice the subjects of political power have, and whether there are any limits to obeying an unjust ruler or regime. Rulers are exhorted to be just in all genres of Islamic theological, legal, and political writing. In the earliest period of Islam, the ruler's justice was to a large extent the function of his legitimacy. A just ruler was one who came to power through the approved procedure, whether by appointment by a predecessor, by “election” on the part of the “people who loose and bind,” or through...

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