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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Self-deception

Self-deception   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...voice some of the time; and some people made both kinds of errors. When the skin response was tallied for all these verbal errors, a striking pattern emerged: in almost all cases, the skin knew better. People who verbally claimed that the voice was not their own (deniers) showed the high GSR typical of self-recognition. Those who claimed that another's voice was their own (projectors) showed the smaller jump in GSR typical of hearing another person's voice. Deniers showed the greatest change in GSR of the four groups; presumably, denial of significant...

Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness

Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...those conditions now. For example, at the time when the fossil evidence shows that the human brain was expanding (i.e., during the Pleistocene, between 2.0 and 0.2 million years ago), humans and their ancestors lived in very small scale societies, linked together by intimate webs of kinship, at low population densities, and with relatively little by way of technology. In contrast, the people who for the most part are studied by psychologists today are predominantly urban, live in very large scale societies, are surrounded by technology, are buffered from the...

Epigenesis and Preformationism

Epigenesis and Preformationism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...of Isaac Newton failed to see preformed structures and created a revised version of epigenesis by the early part of the eighteenth century. Designed and unseen mechanical forces, analogous to gravity and acting according to God's providence, were offered to explain the orderly process. This helped some natural philosophers to understand how Abraham Trembley's famous hydra, celebrated in the 1740s, could regenerate a whole new organism from a part sliced from an adult hydra. The hydra was a freshwater organism that regenerated lost parts, confounding the...

Consciousness

Consciousness   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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3,463 words
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1

...no one has, as of yet, offered any good reason for believing such a claim. See also Human Sociobiology and Behavior , article on Evolutionary Psychology ; Primates , article on Primate Societies and Social Life . Damasio, A. R. “ Time-Locked Multiregional Activation: A System-Level Proposal for the Neural Substrates of Recall and Recognition. ” Cognition , 33 (1989): 25–62. Presents a systems-level theoretical framework for the understanding of memory and consciousness. Claims that only primate brains have the systematic connections that underlie...

Neutral Theory

Neutral Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
5,748 words
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4

...Theory Until the late 1960s, all differences between species or among members of the same species were understood in terms of their contribution to the fitness of the organism or species bearing them. This view, known as the synthetic theory or neo-Darwinism, claimed that even the most minute features of organisms contribute to their adaptation. It seemed reasonable that the synthetic theory could easily be extended to the molecular level. In other words, if observable phenotypic differences were due to adaptation, differences at the molecular level...

Darwinian Medicine

Darwinian Medicine   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...the state claimed to be an adaptation repeatedly associated with the kind of natural selection needed to produce that adaptation? (3) Is the condition of the trait a byproduct of selection on other traits? and (4) Has the trait been analyzed as a component part of the organism, or might the analysis be confused by an inappropriate abstraction of a piece of the organism from the larger whole in which it is naturally embedded? The State of the Field It is hoped that this brief discussion convinces renders that there is no problem in principle with claims of...

Ancient DNA

Ancient DNA   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...“wolf,” Thylacinus cynocephalus . The subsequent discovery of DNA within preserved bones, teeth, and plant remains increased the potential for the application of this technology. This initial phase of research also gave rise to several claims of DNA recovery from extremely old specimens, such as chloroplast DNA from a 17- to 20-million-year-old magnolia leaf and a 38-million-year-old spider preserved in amber. Though interesting, these results severely contradict estimates of DNA survival based on theoretical rates of chemical degradation; more important, they...

Cambrian Explosion

Cambrian Explosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...Zhenjiang (Yunnan, China), Kaili (Guizhou, China), and Sirius Passet (Peary Land, Greenland) are preeminent. The extraordinary diversity of these faunas has greatly enhanced our understanding of the range and evolutionary importance of the Cambrian explosion. It has also been claimed that the overall occupation of morphospace, however defined, was significantly higher in the Cambrian and has subsequently shown a significant narrowing of what is termed disparity. This is a complex issue, but to the first approximation detailed study and comparison of disparity...

Nomenclature

Nomenclature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,807 words
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2

...the spelling of names is linked to their rank, these changes in rank can result in changes to the spelling of the names of several taxa. Thus, using phylogenetic nomenclature would make it easier to name clades one at a time as they are discovered. Thus, contrary to frequent claims, the use of phylogenetic nomenclature does not necessitate a complete knowledge of phylogeny. Phylogenetic nomenclature allows, but does not require, the abolition of ranks. If ranks are retained, however, they have no bearing on the names that are assigned to taxa. The...

Human Genetic and Linguistic Diversity

Human Genetic and Linguistic Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
8,001 words
Illustration(s):
5

...aurignacian, starting around 50,000 years ago. They have been called behaviorally modern humans. Their arrival in China may have been as early as 67,000 years ago, based on a dating (of unknown standard error) of the earliest modern human skull in East Asia, and there is now a claim of an early human fossil in Oceania, physically modern, of uncertain origin. Much evidence, both archaeological and genetic, has today accumulated in favor of the hypothesis that modern humans developed in Africa and expanded to the other continents between 60,000 and 40,000 years...

Vertebrates

Vertebrates   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...Testudinata     Order Crocodylia     Order Sphenodontida     Order Squamata    Class Aves    Class Mammalia There are several deficiencies in this traditional classification ( de Quieroz and Gauthier , 1994 ; Greene , 2001 ). First, although Linnean taxonomy is often claimed to reflect evolution, with respect to vertebrates it actually implies only that all seven classes shared a common ancestor and it reveals almost nothing about the history of their subsequent diversification. Moreover, Linnean classification fails to designate with formal names...

Hominid Evolution

Hominid Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
14,569 words
Illustration(s):
5

...but this is not a completely constant process, in terms of either rate or direction. The earlier part of hominin evolution is characterized by the presence of a key human trait—bipedalism—but in other ways is markedly divergent. It shows both the retention of many conservative apelike characteristics of behavior and adaptation and the evolution of dental specializations that do not occur in modern humans. In that sense, the evolution of Homo represents only a part of the overall pattern of hominin evolution. Within Homo there is a pattern of gradual...

Natural Selection

Natural Selection   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005

...with two copies of the sickle-cell gene ( HbS homozygotes) ordinarily die before the age of reproduction unless aided by modern medical technology. In malaria-ridden environments, the fitness advantage of heterozygotes is 10 to 20 percent. This means that a cohort of heterozygotes leaves, one generation later, 10 to 20 percent more offspring than a cohort of normal homozygotes. Using the lower figure of 10 percent and assuming that sickle-cell homozygotes never survive to reproduce, natural selection will lead to population frequencies of about 90...

Modern Homo Sapiens

Modern Homo Sapiens   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
7,755 words
Illustration(s):
2

...innovative ability that promoted the first human adaptation to northeastern Eurasia. If so, the oldest Australian sites should likewise postdate about forty thousand years ago. Until recently, this appeared to be the case, but there are now claims for sites that antedate fifty or even sixty thousand years ago. These claims are controversial, but if they are sustained, they would indicate that modern humans arrived in eastern Asia before they arrived in Europe. Perhaps there were at least two “Out of Africa” migrations, one through the Sinai Desert to western...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...they consciously claim) and their behavior. This led to interesting suggestions about the nature of culture (defined as socially transmitted information) and behavior. The gap between culture and behavior, in this case, appears to result from the fact that the Mukogodo are former hunters and gatherers who have been assimilated to the pastoralist Maasai culture, and their poverty and the low status of their former lifestyle places them at the bottom of the Maasai social hierarchy. Maasai in general prefer sons, and the Mukogodo prefer to claim an attitude that...

Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...to make analogous arguments for some animals, but the importance of transmission of traditions among animals for their evolution is strongly debated. Many animal behaviorists feel that, unlike humans, most animals do not intend to pass information to a conspecific. It is further claimed that only the powerful cognitive apparatus of humans permits the intentional accumulation of modifications to traits that may then be culturally transmitted (see Galef , 1992 ; Tomasello , 1999 ). Cultural Transmission Modes Using an analogy to epidemiology, Cavalli-Sforza ...

Life History Theory

Life History Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,243 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Hawkes , and J. O'Connell . “ The Antiquity of Post-Reproductive Life: Are There Modern Impacts on Hunter-Gatherer Post-Reproductive Life Spans? ” American Journal of Human Biology (2002). A careful look at the demography of the Hadza, Ache, and !Kung with an evaluation of the claims that the reported numbers of aged individuals arise from errors in the demography and/or modern influences on longevity. Charnov, E. L. Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology . Oxford, 1993. This important work demonstrates the general...

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