You are looking at 1-20 of 22 entries  for:

  • All: Part 20 claim x
  • Social sciences x
clear all

View:

Overview

Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

BEASLEY, Frederick

BEASLEY, Frederick (1777–1845)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...until his death. Beasley was able to resume his pursuit of theological controversies after he left the University. Tempted onto rationalist grounds, in 1825 he attempted an a priori argument for God, claiming that a necessary and eternal being must be an omniscient mind. After receiving Beasley’s tract, U.S. President James MADISON wrote to Beasley on 20 November 1825 with his own view that reasoning from the evidences of natural world to its divine cause is more satisfactory to the limited human mind than purely abstract reasoning. Beasley responded to...

HOOKER, Thomas

HOOKER, Thomas (1586–1647)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...interests (Part 3, 2–3). It might also be more difficult to secure justice for a local church from national bodies (Part 4, 19) who do not know the particularities of local life. Small community, moreover, helps local conflicts that breed larger-scale faction and unrest to “be settled promptly, and confined to their source…” (Shuffleton 1977 , 207). To a people who might be pusillanimous in the wherewithal to choose their own societal forms, he offers the exhortation that God had saved them so that they would be free (Hooker 1860 , 20). In their freedom...

STEARNS, John

STEARNS, John (1770–1848)   Reference library

Mary M. Manning

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...issues. Comparing his theories with those of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, Thomas Reid , Dugald Stewart , Thomas Brown , and others, Stearns states, perhaps too carelessly, that his views of the “immaterial part of man … may be novel, and at variance with opinions heretofore expressed by the metaphysical writers” ( 1840 , 5). He offhandedly claims that since the time of Aristotle, philosophers have considered the human being to be a compound of two distinct parts: immaterial mind and material body: “In all their discussions, they have identified the soul...

BLAND, Richard

BLAND, Richard (1710–1776)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...thereby defending colonial rights and the Virginia Assembly’s tradition of self-governance. His first known pamphlet articulating colonial rights was published in 1753 , probably under the title A Modest and True State of the Case . It survives only in part as A fragment on the pistole fee, claimed by the governor of Virginia . In that document, Bland opposed the governor’s imposition of a fee of one pistole (a small Spanish coin) for granting new land patents on the grounds that the fee violated Virginia’s tradition requiring that all taxes and fees be...

WEST, Samuel

WEST, Samuel (1730–1807)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Edwards, and others, for Necessity, are considered (Boston, 1793). “A Letter Concerning Gay Head,” Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , vol. 2, part 1 (Boston, 1793), 147–150. Essays on Liberty and Necessity; in which the True Nature of Liberty is stated and defended; and the Principal Arguments used by Mr. Edwards, and others, for Necessity, are considered, in Two Parts, Part Second (New Bedford, Mass., 1795). Other Relevant Works West’s papers are at Harvard University, including his Dudleian Lectures on “ The Validity of Ordination by...

ADAMS, Hannah

ADAMS, Hannah (1755–1831)   Reference library

Angela McWilliams Goodson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...posture of the victim in her fight against Morse, claiming that she needed to be protected because of her frailty as a woman. That a woman should be writing about theological topics, from a Unitarian viewpoint, no doubt fanned the flames of dissention on the part of Morse. During her last years Adams lived off an annuity established by a wealthy friend of her work in Boston. Though her eyesight failed, she continued to work and compiled A Memoir of Miss Hannah Adams , published posthumously in 1832 . On 20 March 1827 she was allowed entrance into the...

DAWSON, William

DAWSON, William (1704–1752)   Reference library

Karen D. Hoffman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Part IV. The Higher Education, ” William and Mary College Quarterly first series 6 (1898): 171–87. Brydon, George M. Virginia’s Mother Church and the Political Conditions under which it Grew (Philadelphia, 1952). Canby, Courtlandt . “ A Note on the Influence of Oxford University upon William and Mary College in the Eighteenth Century, ” William and Mary College Quarterly second series 21 (1941): 243–7. Dean, Harold L. “ An Identification of the ‘Gentleman of Virginia’ ,” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 31 (1937): 10–20....

CHENEY, Ednah Dow Littlehale

CHENEY, Ednah Dow Littlehale (1824–1904)   Reference library

Therese B. Dykeman

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...FULLER , where at sixteen she was the youngest member. After attending Fuller’s classes for three years, Cheney participated in the Conversations of Bronson ALCOTT , particularly for his lectures on Pythagoras, Plotinus, and Plato in which Alcott claimed Cheney to have been his best student. She claimed that the analysis of language and practice in defining, as drawn from Lindley Murray’s grammar, was of great importance to her scholarship. Perhaps that is why her style of writing is clear and systematic. Fluent in several languages, Cheney read Dante in...

GREELEY, Horace

GREELEY, Horace (1811–1872)   Reference library

Nataly Z. Chesky

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...‘freedom’ and ‘liberty’, which at the time were used interchangeably. Liberty, he realized, involved a citizen’s right to do what is permitted by law, while freedom surpasses any law as part of a universal humanitarian moral code. Greeley saw a contradiction between America’s Declaration of Independence which stated “all men are created equal” and The Bill of Rights which claimed that personal liberty under law encompassed the right to own slaves. Greeley viewed the dialectic between liberty with slavery and freedom without slavery as the only two alternatives...

CONOVER, Samuel Forman

CONOVER, Samuel Forman (1762–1824)   Reference library

Mary M. Manning

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...are partially suspended, that the soul thinks. Then, he disputes Locke’s concept in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ( 1690 ), chapter 1, §17: “The dreams of sleeping men are, as I take it, all made up of the waking man’s ideas; though for the most part, oddly put together.” Conover claims to use Locke’s own principles of reasoning to prove that Locke’s statement is not true in all cases. Conover argues that “if all our ideas are derived from sensation and reflection which [Locke] endeavors to maintain, and if, in time of profound sleep, the soul...

FLINT, Austin

FLINT, Austin (1812–1886)   Reference library

Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...as Exemplified in the Natural History of Diseases,” completed Flint’s pervasive motif of God’s intelligent or providential involvement in human medical affairs. Here he explicitly and rather surprisingly claimed that the existence of human physical afflictions that want the attention of physicians was not only a necessary but also a welcome and beneficial part of God’s plan. Flint meant this from the universal or absolute standpoint, not the particular human standpoint. From the strictly human point of view, pain and suffering are always evils, whether natural...

JEFFERSON, Thomas

JEFFERSON, Thomas (1743–1826)   Reference library

Adrian Oldfield

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to be pieced together from a variety of disparate sources. Clues are also to be found in his political activity. To the extent that he was a deist, Jefferson could not be the thoroughgoing materialist that he sometimes claimed to be. He was, however, suspicious of all claims to knowledge of spiritual matters indeed of anything that was not part of the tangible and visible, natural, world. It was in the natural world that God had placed man, and it was in the natural American wilderness that American man found himself placed. It was there the task, even the...

SUMNER, Charles

SUMNER, Charles (1811–1874)   Reference library

Alexandra Perry

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Foreign Relations; Showing Present Perils from England and France (New York, 1863). Security and Reconciliation for the Future (Boston, 1865). The Equal Rights of All (Washington, D.C., 1866). Are We a Nation? (Boston, 1867). Claims on England – Individual and National (Washington, D.C., 1869). Republished as The Alabama Claims (London, 1869). The Question of Caste (Boston, 1869). Naboth’s Vineyard (Washington, D.C., 1870). Republicanism vs. Grantism (Washington, D.C., 1872). Prophetic Voices Concerning America (Boston and New York, 1874). Other...

HADDOCK, Charles Brickett

HADDOCK, Charles Brickett (1796–1861)   Reference library

Sean Corbin

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a statewide system of common schools: he travelled nearly the entire year, often in his own carriage, to district after district, talking with local educators, parents and students to determine the best way to reform New Hampshire’s schools. It would be grandiose and deluded to claim Haddock originated theories of public schooling in the United States, or that he even did much to advance educational theory or the daily work of educational practice. In each aspect of his work, as politician, professor, scholar, minister, and envoy, Haddock was most influential...

BARTLETT, Elisha

BARTLETT, Elisha (1804–1855)   Reference library

Eric v.d. Luft

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...quantification. Bartlett described and rejected about two dozen medical creeds, or theoretical systems of either deductive or insufficiently inductive medicine. He stated at the outset that most such theories were not intended to be deductive, but “with very few exceptions, men, claiming to be disciples of the Baconian philosophy, eloquent in their praises of what they call inductive reasoning, and full of earnest declamation against the dangers and the prevalence of false or premature generalizations, and of hypothetical speculation, have failed to see more...

NEVIN, John Williamson

NEVIN, John Williamson (1803–1886)   Reference library

Jonathan Sands-Wise

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the early church and had been a small remnant through all of the ages of “popery,” that the Pope was the antichrist, and that all Catholics were damned, this was a rather stunning claim for Nevin and Schaff to make. In the second through the fourth volumes, Nevin first debated with Orestes BROWNSON , a famous Catholic of his day, and then with Episcopalians and others who claimed a direct lineage in the early church. Even when debating against Brownson, however, Nevin took what was commonly perceived as a Catholic view of the organic development of the Church...

PENN, William

PENN, William (1644–1718)   Reference library

Andrew R. Murphy

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...framework within which to understand his legal philosophy. Part of salus populi , in Penn’s view, involved a repeal of all penal laws and ecclesiastical legislation that punished religious dissenters for the exercise of their conscientious beliefs. Penn also engaged in extended controversies with representatives of various other faiths to justify and defend his coreligionists from attack. Quakers sought more than simply the liberty to worship as they saw fit. Declining to take any part in the exercise of coercive power, the Quaker “peace testimony”...

GAY, Ebenezer

GAY, Ebenezer (1696–1787)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...209–10). But neither were a sufficient inducement for Gay to let his liberalism flow with theirs into the patriot camp. In arguing that New Light evangelicalism was the active ingredient that sparked populism and Whig political philosophy into American rebellion, Alan Heimert claimed that Gay was thereby more consistent in following through on both Boston liberalism’s upholding of the distinction between tyranny and oppression (which could be caused by “mere maladministration” or ultimately teachable “aspiring demagogues”) and its efforts to shore up the...

BACKUS, Isaac

BACKUS, Isaac (1724–1806)   Reference library

Stephen A. Wilson

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...biblical terms with, to him, more primary meaning. His inquiry into whether the state had a right to dictate religious practices as part of the apparatus of national identity, for instance, is embedded within the framework of the debate over whether the love commandments of the New Testament supersede the corporate obligations of the Abrahamic covenant. Only in the area of church-state separation can Backus perhaps claim to be more mover than moved. Only there does he engage the tasks of philosophy in the course of his primary vocation as a preacher and...

MATHER, Cotton

MATHER, Cotton (1663–1728)   Reference library

Robert E. Brown

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the colony’s political status, New England had seen nearly 20 years of French and Indian depredations, which had recently intensified in Maine. To this was added the much-trumpeted specter of philosophical atheism, whose denial of the spiritual world seems to have made the assertion of the reality of witchcraft a potent counter-apologetic. It is fair to say that Puritan society at the time was on edge; the accusations of witchcraft set match to this fire. Mather would play his part in fanning the flames. Mather himself was no stranger to the...

View: