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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Castaneda, Carlos

Castaneda, Carlos (1925/31?–1998)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
696 words

...with relatives in southern Mexico. According to Castaneda, at the age of 20, Don Juan met Julian Osorio , a son of European immigrants, who had himself been initiated by nagual Elias Ulloa into a lineage of brujos that reputedly went back 25 generations. Becoming part of this tradition, Don Juan eventually acquired four disciples: Taisha Abelar, Forinda Donner-Grau, Carol Tiggs and Carlos Castaneda. He taught a series of body movements described as “magical passes.” Castaneda claimed that Don Juan bequeathed to him everything he knew about his lineage of...

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)

Rock Art – Hadzabe/Sandawe (Eastern Africa)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
681 words

...of depiction is one of the characteristics of this art tradition. The distribution of this art matches closely the historically known distribution of the only two click-speaking groups in eastern Africa: the Hadzabe and the Sandawe. It is widely believed by researchers and claimed by the groups themselves, that it was the ancestors of the modern Hadzabe and Sandawe that made the rock art. There has been much debate on the relationship between these groups and the southern African click-speakers such as the San (Bushmen). Linguists now see the languages as...

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,311 words

...millions of individual figures. The large numbers of human figures at these sites show a highly stylized and developed art form, and a great degree of creativity. Some are fairly accurate representations of humans with well-proportioned bodies, while others are biomorphs; part human and part animal, apparently representing Dreaming beings. The rock shelters of sub-tropical Arnhem Land hold an abundance of varied and skillfully executed examples of rock art. The two most general pictograph styles in Arnhem Land are the X-ray and Dynamic (sometimes called Mimi)...

Law, Religion, and Native American Lands

Law, Religion, and Native American Lands   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
9,167 words

...Robert S. “Dirt in the Court Room: Indian Land Claims and American Property Rights.” In David Chidester and Edward Tabor Linenthal , eds. American Sacred Space . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995, 43–96. Newcomb, Steven T. “ The Evidence of Christian Nationalism in Federal Indian Law: The Doctrine of Discovery, Johnson v. McIntosh, and Plenary Power. ” New York University Review of Law and Social Change 20:2 (1993). Oakes, Jill , et al., eds. Sacred Land: Aboriginal World Views, Claims and Conflicts . Winnipeg: Canadian Circumpolar...

Sacred Sites in England

Sacred Sites in England   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,110 words

...and with suitable ritual (author interview). While indigenous communities elsewhere can demonstrate genetic or cultural links to satisfy the law, focusing on the extent to which Pagans can claim British prehistoric remains as “theirs” is to miss the point, for two reasons. First, the issue here is one of respect and reburial rather than repatriation: most Pagans do not claim to be exclusively related to the ancestors. And second, the issue here is not one solely of academic discourse versus public understanding, of authenticity versus inauthenticity, or...

Paleolithic Art

Paleolithic Art   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
987 words

...figurines – the famously misnamed “Venuses” – which Russian archeologists have traditionally interpreted as mother- or ancestor-figures. The theory of “sympathetic magic,” inspired by ethnographic accounts of some Australian Aborigines at the end of the nineteenth century, claimed that artists drew animals that they wanted to kill (sometimes with spears or arrows depicted on them), or animals which they hoped would copulate and reproduce, thus becoming plentiful. These theories of “hunting magic” and “fertility magic” reigned supreme for the first half of...

Indigenous Activism and Environmentalism in Latin America

Indigenous Activism and Environmentalism in Latin America   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,250 words

...conservation with cultural survival. Once again the Bank suspended its loan pending revision of the project. Responding to the protests, the Bank issued Operational Directive 4.20 (OD 4.20) in 1991 . OD 4.20 calls for the mitigation of negative impacts on indigenous peoples caused by Bank projects (although it does not prevent projects anticipated to have such impacts). OD 4.20 formalizes the close association of indigenous rights and environmental concerns. Evaluation of threats to indigenous peoples is subsumed in the environmental impact assessment...

Christianity and Animals

Christianity and Animals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,590 words

...and Animals The creation story contained in Genesis 1 was pivotal in shaping Christian thought concerning the relationship between humans and animals. The Genesis story made two critical claims: first, that all creation, including animals, is good (Gen. 1:20–25). A second claim concerns the status and role of humans in nature, who were reportedly created in the imago dei , or God's image (verse 27), and given power over all the other species: God blessed them and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it, and have...

Descartes, René

Descartes, René (1596–1650)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,642 words

...method to our assumptions about the boundary between humans and nature. Descartes and Francis Bacon, the primary modern proponents of rationality as humanity's privileged mode of understanding and manipulating nature – a mode of understanding and a manipulation, many ecofeminists claim, that has caused and justified the domination of both nature and women – stand out as primary targets for the critique of ecofeminist authors. The solution is to overcome not only the culturally institutionalized subjugation of women and nature, but the very cognitive processes...

Lake Pergusa (Sicily)

Lake Pergusa (Sicily)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,316 words

...many of its lakes, rivers, and springs – as well as much of its rainfall – due to deforestation. As Pergusa continues to shrink, the most important event taking place at the Autodrome may well be the race against time. Meanwhile, Persephone's sacred lake, which may well be claimed in part by the Mafia, serves as a striking living metaphor for the “abduction” of nature at the hands of the contemporary “underworld.” Marguerite Rigoglioso Further Reading Cimino, Maria . “Che cos'e' il Lago di Pergusa” (What is Lake Pergusa?). Report presented to the Assessore...

Donga Tribe

Donga Tribe   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,507 words

...the Triple Goddess (maid/mother/crone; also linked to the moon, new/ full/waning). One such “spell” sung straight out went: “green man of sap springing / moon lady water flowing / both bound together / protect the land around us.” It should be emphasized that the Dongas did not claim to see these essences actually manifesting (unless they had eaten many magic mushrooms). Rather, they were symbolic ways of reestablishing connections to nature, and, as importantly, to history. Such everyday “cookbook” eco-magic was tied into ideas about living lightly on the...

Eco-Kabbalah

Eco-Kabbalah   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,280 words

...the fulfillment of creation. There thus remains a sense, mostly undefined, that faith in God as Creator is an essential part of Judaism, despite Jews' willingness to accept the legitimacy of scientific cosmology and cosmogony. Kabbalah, an esoteric Judaism dating at least to the twelfth century, offers an alternative version of creation, one that has been more attractive to some contemporary seekers. Some have even claimed parallels between Kabbalistic speculations and the language of contemporary science. The Kabbalists see creation as emerging out...

Delphic Oracle

Delphic Oracle   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,578 words

...latter case, male temple attendants might compose a poetical version of the Pythia's response in return for a gratuity from the questioner. There is no ancient evidence for the popular modern claims that the Pythia spoke gibberish, and that the oracular responses were really composed by the male priests. The most remarkable element of the prophetic ritual was the part played by an exhalation of natural gas or vapor within the temple. The Greek term was pneuma , which also meant “breath.” According to a number of ancient Greek and Roman writers, the Pythia...

Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,421 words

...the enemy (2 Chron. 32:2–4). The Bible's wisdom texts indicate that some destruction is part of the normal cycle of life: there is a time for planting and a time for uprooting what has been planted (Eccl. 3:2ff.). The Hebrew Bible also contains detailed perceptions on various elements of nature (e.g., water and trees). It sees in water, inter alia , a vitalizing agent of the Earth (Gen. 2:5); a natural resource most essential for the survival of living beings (Neh. 9:20); a tool of destruction (Ex. 14:27–28); having religious functions (Lev. 16:4); a tool for...

Wright, Judith

Wright, Judith (1915–2000)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,064 words

...triumphalist story of settlement. This identification combined with physical frailty as she grew older made her increasingly angry and she identified with the darker energies of the cosmos. In this poem to the moon, “ruler of women / and singler-out of poets,” for instance, she claimed the powers of a crone: … To you, chill Domina, I make the prayer of age. In my last quarter let me be hag, but poet. The lyric note may vanish from my verse but you have also found acceptable the witch's spell – even the witch's curse (341–2). To the end she insisted on...

Hunting and the Origins of Religion

Hunting and the Origins of Religion   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,909 words

...protect the exercise of free speech, in this case the second part of the amendment was cited as support for the exercise of a woman's right to religious freedom. She had attempted to interrupt a legally permitted hunt in the state of New Jersey and argued that the sacred and divine character of all living things was the core of her religious beliefs; as a result, she claimed the right to transform her belief into action, in this case the protection of the hunted animals from the hunters. Her claim was rejected by the court ( 1999 ). Great debate has emerged...

Jung, Carl – A Perspective

Jung, Carl – A Perspective   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,743 words

...Jungians,” Jung's “spirituality without religion” (Tacey 2001 : 45) “merges almost effortlessly with ecospirituality, the worship of nature spirits, paganism, pantheism, and Wicca” (Tacey 2001 : 179). But against the claims of Richard Noll 's The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement , others reject decisively claims that Jung sought to become the much-worshipped high priest of a psycho-religious cult. Likewise, Jung's own materials must now be carefully distinguished from those of the generations of Post- and Neo-Jungians (largely...

Homosexuality

Homosexuality   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,185 words

...At stake in these differences are widely varying attitudes toward nature, what counts as “natural” and what difference this makes for religious claims and practices, and how diverse sexual behaviors and identities across human cultures and animal species are valued or disvalued. Indigenous religions often have embraced more diversity in sexual identities and gender roles as an integral and honored part of the natural diversity within nature than the world's great religious traditions, particularly the monotheistic religions of the West. Robert Baum ...

Jewish Intertestamental Literature

Jewish Intertestamental Literature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,633 words

...years (Ex. 23:10; 25:4–6; Lev. 25:8–22) require the land to lie fallow every seventh and fiftieth year (1 Macc. 6). Since the land is holy, God's people must be holy in order to dwell in the land (Jub. 15:28; 20:4; 50:5; Wis. 12:3–11; 1QS 1:5; 8:3). The land is defiled by the sins of those who dwell there (Jub. 7:33; 16:5–6; 23:18; 4 Ez. 9:19–20; 2 Bar. 44:9). Persistent sin causes God to remove his blessing from the land so it becomes less fruitful and even desolate (Jub. 23:18; CD 2:9–11; 4:10; 2 Bar. 62:4–5; 66:2–5). The Qumran sectarians believed that...

Divine Waters of the Oru-Igbo (Southeastern Nigeria)

Divine Waters of the Oru-Igbo (Southeastern Nigeria)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,691 words

...politically, emotionally, spiritually, and in art and ritual. The prime deity underpinning Igbo custom is the Earth goddess, Ani/ Ala, as reflected in the Igbo word for custom, omen-ala / omen-ani , or laws of the land. Colonial administrators interested in territorial claims recognized the importance of the Earth goddess. But in addition, there are several other equally significant nature deities whose prominence varies from place to place in correspondence to the natural environment. One major divinity besides the Earth goddess is the mother water...

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