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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

aesthetic experience

aesthetic experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,784 words

...to ground a judgement of taste or beauty—one based on a feeling of pleasure or displeasure yet which claims validity. The fact that aesthetic experience grounds a judgement with such a claim to validity is essential to what it is to be an aesthetic experience or a pleasure in the beautiful. This gives us a useful grip on the notion of aesthetic experience, which can then be the basis for philosophical speculation or empirical investigation. In the 20th century aestheticians have wanted to broaden the notion of the aesthetic to include other judgements...

physicalism

physicalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,723 words

...connections with a religious world view, to atheism. In the 20th century analytic philosophy the idea achieved considerable prominence again, finding support in such figures as Quine ( 1960 ) and Lewis ( 1994 ). Indeed, it not unreasonable to say that, just as idealism was the metaphysics du jour for the philosophers of the late 19th century, so physicalism has become the metaphysics du jour for the 20th. It may also be that physicalism (or something like it) is implicitly a common part of 20th and 21st century intellectual culture, though this is...

extrasensory perception

extrasensory perception   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,063 words

...As with ganzfeld, there were initial successes followed by much controversy. In 1995 a CIA report, covering more than 20 years of government research, concluded that although a small effect had been demonstrated in the laboratory it was not useful for intelligence purposes. Other ESP research includes telepathy in twins, ESP in young children, the use of hypnosis, relaxation, dreams and meditation to improve ESP, the claimed ability of people to detect when they are being stared at (remote staring), and tests of psychic claimants. After more than a...

out-of-body experience

out-of-body experience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,006 words

...OBEs end spontaneously after only a few seconds or minutes with no ill effects. 1. Experiments on the OBE 2. Theories of the OBE 1. Experiments on the OBE Experiments on OBEs have been of three types. Attempts to detect the double began early in the 20th century using spiritualist mediums who claimed to be able to project their double at a distance. Photographs were taken and attempts made to weigh the soul as it left the body of people dying of tuberculosis, but the studies were not well controlled and the effects disappeared when better methods were...

facial expressions: origins

facial expressions: origins   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
809 words

...he was the kindest of men and most deeply attached to his family. In the 20th century it became fashionable to deny any genetic influence on human behaviour and it was claimed that all behaviour patterns, including facial expressions, were purely the result of cultural learning. Darwin's earlier ideas were rejected and in the 1930s psychologist Otto Klineberg's conclusions were summarized by the phrase: ‘what is shown on the face is written there by culture’. In the second half of the 20th century this school of thought was discredited and new research...

religion

religion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,566 words

...have turned a blind eye on contemporary doubts, and entrenched themselves in traditional dogma. But the 20th century was essentially the age of the half-believer—the person who is not without intuitions about the meaning of life, but is baffled by the dead weight of theology which has been accumulated. The so-called five proofs of God's existence have never carried as much conviction as the personal encounters with God which religious people have claimed to have. ‘Dieu d'Abraham, Dieu d'Isaac, Dieu de Jacob, non des philosophes et des savants.’ So said ...

subjectivity

subjectivity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,041 words

...its structure, specifies the kind of epistemic access we have to it, delineates the methodology that we should employ when investigating it, and finally clarifies its ontological or metaphysical status. It is part of the current state of affairs that any attempt to provide an answer to these questions is bound to be controversial. The claim that a scientifically respectable account of consciousness must include a thorough investigation of subjectivity has, for instance, not gone unchallenged. Watson famously demanded that behaviourist should drop from...

touch

touch   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,874 words

...touch. To cope with these difficulties, one might claim that the proper objects of touch are perceived relations between the body and the world ( Armstrong 1962 ). Many questions still remain open about the dependency of touch on proprioception. Is it reciprocal, or is there a priority of proprioception over touch ( O'Shaughnessy 1989 )? Does proprioceptive information merely play a causal role or does it plays an epistemic role? Is the specific contribution of proprioception to touch part of the phenomenology of touch? Frédérique de Vignemont ...

metaphor

metaphor   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,366 words

...it would be the only known example of behaviour contrary to the comprehension-before-production rule. A second problem is that the claim that such young children produce metaphors fails to recognize that an utterance could be metaphorical from an adult's perspective, but not from that of the child who produces it. In other words, the claim may be excessively ‘adultocentric’. Doubtless, part of the attractiveness of claiming that very young children produce metaphors is that an important function of metaphors is to permit the expression of ideas that might...

mind in science fiction

mind in science fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,022 words

...of the 20th century had no sf element. I will here adopt a fairly strict definition: sf is the branch of fiction which deals with the effects of supposed future advances in science or technology and which pays at least outward respect to currently accepted science (cf. Amis 1961 ). Within sf, we find speculations on ‘mental’ questions— the word is used with no Cartesian commitment—in three main areas. These are future developments in human minds, the possible characteristics of alien minds, and those of artificial minds. Although no man can claim to have...

Hering, Ewald

Hering, Ewald (1834–1918)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
932 words

...application of mathematics, Helmholtz managed to place physiological optics and acoustics as well as thermodynamics on the solid foundations so magnificently utilized by 20th-century science. But Helmholtz had strayed a long distance from the two giants of the German intellectual scene, Goethe and Kant . Their much more direct descendant was the physiologist Ewald Hering, who claimed also to have been influenced, as a student, by Schopenhauer and Fechner . After gaining his MD, Hering stayed in Leipzig for several years, and before he was 30 had...

qualia

qualia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,702 words

...hence is part of, and partially constitutive of, a *body image . In such a body image we are given to ourselves as having certain bodily characteristics and so in a way that can be assessed for accuracy or inaccuracy. Thus pain seems to satisfy the basic criterion of an intentional state, and it will be accessible to the same sorts of empirical investigations as perceptual states. Because the approaches are non‐reductive, however, there can be no such blatant violations of privileged access as someone's being justified in contradicting one's claim to be in...

psychology and the study of consciousness

psychology and the study of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,641 words

...generally viewed as unacceptable within the science. Alternatively today, we can place conscious states within theories with causal consequences and causal antecedents, theories entailing no commitment to metaphysical claims of ‘free will’ or non‐material ontology. Theoretical claims may be empirically examined; metaphysical claims are not susceptible to empirical examination in science as we know it. 2. The place of consciousness in modern meta‐theories Although aspects of consciousness have increasingly become a focus of investigation today, we can see...

mental imagery: depictive accounts

mental imagery: depictive accounts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,329 words

...mental images arise from representations like those created during the early phases of perception , but these representations are based on information stored in memory (rather than on sensory input, as occurs during perception). Specifically, depictive views of imagery claim that the phenomenology of mental imagery—such as the experience of ‘seeing with the mind's eye’ reflects key properties of the underlying representations. According to this view, image representations depict information about the way an object or scene would appear when viewed...

musical experience, scientific perspectives

musical experience, scientific perspectives   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,845 words

...of Francès ( 1958 / 1988 ), ‘musically analphabetic’ listeners are able to perceive basic musical structures but not elaborate ones. There are two main arguments for this conception. First, music is a sound structure that does not refer to the external world. Some authors even claim that it refers to nothing other than itself. As a consequence, it is extremely difficult to describe the content of the musical experience explicitly without a technical vocabulary. Second, musical structure is rather difficult to apprehend explicitly, because its rests on a...

mental imagery

mental imagery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,466 words

...against a picture theory that had been discussed over the past 30 years (not to mention Locke 's argument against Berkeley 's claim that ideas are images) remain unanswered. The interpretation placed on the neuroscience evidence by picture theorists is highly problematic and when the evidence is examined even cursorily it is found to provide no support at all for the picture theory of mental imagery. While the finding that some part of the visual system is active in mental imagery is (if sustained) itself quite interesting, it tells us nothing about the ...

depression

depression   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,190 words

...care medicine is that over half of those who commit suicide have seen a physician within the previous 3 months, and 20 per cent of elderly suicides have done so within 24 hours. They may have complained about depression, but more commonly their symptoms (insomnia, weight loss, lack of energy, pain, loss of interest in life, anxiety, irritation, loss of concentration, appetite loss, loss of pleasure, psychomotor retardation) were not seen as part of a psychiatric disturbance, so assessment about suicide was not made. Primary care physicians seem to miss the...

phrenology

phrenology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,742 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., a quarterly edited by Combe at Edinburgh from 1823 to 1847 . There was, however, much criticism, such as from the philosopher, and early proponent of associative psychology, Thomas Brown ( 1778–1820 ), and phrenology was often lampooned in verse and on the stage. Gall claimed to have discovered his phrenological principles inductively from people (and animals) of his acquaintance who had marked character traits associated with distinctive skull shapes, or ‘bumps’ that could be felt with the fingers. For example, the region he numbered as 1—Amativeness...

behaviourism

behaviourism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,286 words

...psychology in the 20th century. Even a psychoanalyst, Anna Freud , explained in a late interview that it was well worth observing how children used toys, responded to tests, or ate meals. ‘The analyst as behaviourist’, she pointed out, ‘can use pieces of behaviour to infer for example how a child deals with anxiety or frustration.’ It is a mark of the success of behaviourism that even those who were radically opposed to it conceded that psychology has to involve studying actual behaviour. Watson and his followers were remarkable in claiming that psychology...

astrology

astrology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,735 words

...which, in turn, exerts forces on human beings. How? Astrology has never been concerned with this question, but Gauquelin suggests that the answer lies in the earth's magnetic field. In 1962 , Y. Rocard , professor of physics at the Sorbonne, conducted an investigation into the claims of water-diviners, and demonstrated that the dowser's muscles react to weak changes in terrestrial magnetism caused by underground water, and that a capacity for detecting extremely small magnetic gradients is surprisingly common among human beings. It has long been widely...

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