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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Psychology

Psychology   Reference library

Jari Kaukua

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,277 words

...his late ancient commentators. A central bone of contention was the question of substance dualism, that is, whether the individual human soul has a part that is independent of the body and can therefore survive its corruption. Further dualistic impetus was given by the Arabic Plotinus, which corroborates Aristotle’s definition of soul as the perfection of the living body but departs from the Stagirite in claiming that this is not in the sense of an enmattered form. Instead, the soul is the agent of the perfection of the living body, which leaves room for a...

Geography and Cartography

Geography and Cartography   Reference library

Constantin Canavas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,876 words
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...Sezgin claims that a map ( Ṣūrat lauḥ al-Rasm ) found in a copy of the geography Masālik al-abṣār by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī ( 1340 ) kept in Topkapı Sarayı in Istanbul (MS Ahmet III, 2797 ) is essentially the world map of al-Maʾmūn’s geography project ( Sezgin, 1987 , Map 11, “Maʾmūnic Map”). This claim has been contested by other scholars, such as Tibbetts, who consider the possibilities of later (e.g., Ottoman) modifications of the extant Ṣūrat lauḥ al-Rasm as quite probable and regard “Maʾmūn’s map still as an enigma” ( Sezgin, 2000 , p. 20;...

Deduction and Induction

Deduction and Induction   Reference library

Parviz Morewedge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,575 words

...is a deduction in which a conclusion follows necessarily from a set of assertions that serve as premises. Muslims understand logical reasoning as an act of knowledge that combines “conception” or “conceptualization” ( taṣawwur ) of a subject with “assent” ( taṣdīq ) to a truth claim about it. Conception and assent are combined in the categorical statements that make up a syllogism, since these affirm or deny the predicate of their subject, as in “All human beings are rational” (Black). In his al-Najāt and Risāla-i manṭiq: Dānišnāma-i ʿalāʿī , Ibn Sīnā...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,408 words

...quadrant. This device, which was also used to measure Kuhek Hill, on which the observatory was built, was 50 meters tall—the same height as the Hagia Sophia mosque in Istanbul. The dial of the quadrant was constructed as a part of the observatory, with the upper 60 degrees placed above ground and the lower 30 degrees below ground. One part of the dial was revealed as a result of an excavation by the Russian archaeologist V. L. Viatkin in 1908 . Uluğ Bey, al-Kāshī, Rūmī, and al-Qushjī compiled the observations and research carried out at the observatory in the...

Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid al-

Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid al- (1058–1111)   Reference library

Mustansir Mir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,480 words

...causes of envy, lists types and grades of envy, discusses why envy is especially strong among peers, siblings, and relatives, and then prescribes the cure for envy ( Iḥyāʾ , 3:183–196 ). Shiism. In the Munqidh and other writings, Ghazālī sharply criticized Ismāʿīlism for its claim that a “sinless” imam was the sole gateway to the truth. The overt object of Ghazālī’s criticism were the Ismāʿīlī esotericists (whose presence in the political field in the form of Fāṭimid rule posed a great danger to Muslim society), but his essential anti-imamic argument...

Reason and Revelation in Islam

Reason and Revelation in Islam   Reference library

Binyamin Abrahamov

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,521 words

...figurative interpretation ( taʾwīl ), the latter claiming that without this tool the Qurʾān and the sunnah would be understood as being replete with anthropomorphisms. Likening God to creatures detracts from God’s transcendence and exaltedness according to the rationalists, so one should bypass the plain meaning of anthropomorphic expressions and replace them with figurative interpretations. It is inconceivable to think of God having two hands (Qurʾān 38:75 ) or sitting physically on His throne (Qurʾān 20:5 ). Consequently, God’s hands stand for His power...

Evolution and Muslim Responses to It

Evolution and Muslim Responses to It   Reference library

Mohammed Ghaly

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,559 words

...Persian around 1878 and then in Arabic in 1885 , the prominent reformist Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afgānī ( d. 1897 ) launched an onslaught against Darwin’s theory and tried to present it as a collection of unscientific, illogical, and absurd claims. He couched the theory in the following words: “A group [of those materialists] claimed that the germs of all species, and in particular the animals, are in fact identical and there is no difference between the species in essence. Therefore, they held that these germs can transform itself from one species to another...

Muʿtazilah

Muʿtazilah   Reference library

Racha el Omari and M. Sait Özervarlı

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,878 words

...can justify that in this world God imposes a law upon him, and that in the next he will be rewarded or punished according to whether he has observed it or not. Obligation and sanction can only be understood in reference to a responsible being. Therefore, in the Muʿtazilī view, to claim that man can, in some way, be the agent or the one responsible for an act without causing it, as the followers of the theory of acquisition ( kasb ) do, is meaningless. God creates in the man the power ( qudra , istitā‘a ) corresponding to this act, but it is in advance as a...

Animals in Islamic Law and Muslim Culture

Animals in Islamic Law and Muslim Culture   Reference library

Sarra Tlili

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,860 words

...of the Animals versus Man Before the King of the Jinn . This narrative consists of a fictional legal suit in which nonhuman animal characters dexterously use scriptural and rational arguments to refute humans’ claims to a superior status. Remarkably, characters on both sides of the dispute cite mainly the Qurʾān and the Ḥadīth in support of their claims, yet nonhuman animals’ nonanthropocentric reading of these two texts is consistently more persuasive. Time and again human beings are forced to admit defeat. Their dexterity notwithstanding, nonhuman animals...

Theology

Theology   Reference library

Catarina Belo and M. Sait Özervarlı

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
5,651 words

...to support either ʿAli or Muʿāwiyah, considering the latter to have sinned through rebellion and the former through agreeing to arbitration with the rebels. They considered sinners, especially grave sinners, unbelievers, claiming that faith and sin were incompatible. For them, “works,” (i.e., good deeds) were considered to be an integral part of the life of a true Muslim. In response to the challenge posed by the Khārijī, another group arose that advocated the suspension of judgment concerning the faith of any particular believer. Unlike the Khārijites, the...

Design Argument

Design Argument   Reference library

Nidhal Guessoum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,131 words

...of providence” ( dalīl al-ʿināyah ). They often related these concepts to the Qurʾānic scripture; the first idea is, for instance, exemplified by the verses 25:61–62 and 78:6–16 , the second idea can be found in 86:5–6 and 88:17–20 , while many other verses contain a combination of the two, for example, 2:20–22 and 23:12–21 . Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī presented DA arguments in Kitāb al-Lumaʿ fīal-radd ʿala ahl al-zaygh wa-al-bidaʿ (The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators; 1955 ) ; basing his work on the Qurʾān, he argued that it is...

Soul, the

Soul, the   Reference library

Imranali Panjwani

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,159 words

...discipline one’s soul in front of God. Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (d. 1273 ce ), popularly known as Rūmī, emphasizes looking inside one’s soul to remove hypocrisy and genuinely serve God: Here is another of God’s rules: “Begin with yourself.” If you claim to be humble and serve God, do not accept this claim without testing it. When people wash, first they lift some water to their nose and then they taste it. Simply looking at the water is not enough, for water may have the appearance of purity, but its taste and smell will prove if it is infected. Once the...

Transmission of the Modern Exact Science to the Muslim World

Transmission of the Modern Exact Science to the Muslim World   Reference library

S. M. Razaullah Ansari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
5,589 words

...modern astronomy with a prose commentary in Persian with the title Miʿrāj al-tawḥīd (The Culmination of the [Divine] Unity); ms. in Aligarh (MAL), scribed in 1806 with 10 folios (in the codex 18/2, f. 20a -f. 29a) (See Abū Ṭālib, 1797 ). This tract of Abū Ṭālib is, in fact, a prose commentary on his own poem of sixty-five couplets. In his preface (fol. 20a) he refers to the sayings of modern scholars ( aqwāl-i ḥukamāʾ-i jadīd ), by which he understands knowledge about fixed stars, planets, their satellites ( aqmār ), planetary heliocentric distances, their...

Wisdom

Wisdom   Reference library

Hikmet Yaman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
5,757 words

...al-ilāhiyyah ), after which he returned to Greece and imparted these sciences, that is, geometry, physics, and the science of religion ( ʿilm al-dīn ), to that land. He also singlehandedly discovered the science of melodies, and systematized them under ratios and numbers. He claimed that he had benefited from the niche of prophethood ( mishkāt al-nubuwwah ) in acquiring these sciences. Pythagoras viewed ḥikmah as “the medicine of souls” ( ṭibb al-arwāḥ ) ( Ibn Hindū, 2001 , 160), and stressed to his students that ḥikmah needs to be kept alive by way of...

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