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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...also cater to group formation. In sharing information on their own (private, semi-private, or public) profiles, users make important claims about how they view and position themselves vis-à-vis others and how they view others vis-à-vis themselves. SNSs became popular in the 2000s, particularly from the latter half onwards, and are central to current definitions of the worldwide web as social and participatory ( see web 2.0 ). They are hence typically classified as ‘social media’. Yet aside from this defining feature, there is much variation among SNS...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,385 words

...however, writers continued to evoke in English the images and phrases of ancient Rome, often only slightly adapted, and to allude fluently to topics that, until well into the 20c, their readership could generally grasp without editorial help. In addition, numerous Latin quotations and tags have enjoyed an extended life in English to the present day. Latin in English A large part of the lexicon of Latin has entered English in two major waves: mainly religious vocabulary from the time of Old English until the Reformation, and mainly scientific, scholarly,...

Rhetoric

Rhetoric   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,875 words

...were organized into bodies of received knowledge. In some societies, they were largely a part of religious ritual, as in India; in others, such as Greece, they were part of the craft of speaking which in the 5c bc became the foundation of education in city states like Athens and Sparta. Greek rhetoric The story is told of exiles who returned to Syracuse, a Greek colony in Sicily, after the overthrow of a tyrant. Because they needed to organize their claims to appropriate land, they hired teachers to help them argue their cases, and, as a result, the...

Quotation

Quotation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,188 words

...1838, 2.2) Misquotation and non-quotation Until the 20c, quotation was largely from written and printed sources; in recent decades, however, quotations have increasingly been taken from live performance, especially speeches and interviews, the taking of excerpts being done in shorthand or, more recently still, with the help of tape recorders. As a result, ‘quotees’ are increasingly aware of the risks of being misquoted or may take refuge from the consequences of what they have said by claiming that they were misquoted. People in the public eye may seek...

Bible

Bible   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,836 words
Illustration(s):
1

...who in 1755 published his own NT for ‘unlettered men who understand only their mother tongue’. Subsequent translations, from the Revised Version ( 1884 ) through to late 20c versions, have not had the aim of producing work in an improved literary style, but of claiming greater fidelity to the original Hebrew or Greek as understood by the most recent scholarship. Some of these claims have been contested and the translations have made no special impact on the language. The Revised Version was the result of over ten years’ work by Protestant scholars in the...

Basic English

Basic English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,324 words

...of push him ), and to be part of a phrasal verb ( put together replacing assemble ). By such means, he considered that his operators could stand in for some 4,000 verbs. He accepted figurative extensions of meaning and supplemented the basic words with numbers, names, and lists of technical terminology according to need. Ogden described the system in Basic English ( 1930 ) and The System of Basic English ( 1934 ). In 1940 he published The General Basic English Dictionary , which gave ‘more than 40,000 senses of over 20,000 words, in basic English’....

English

English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

..., Feb. 1989 ). The language English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, along with, among others, Danish, Dutch, and German. Once confined to Britain, it is now used throughout the world. Its use and distribution can be discussed in various ways, including geographical distribution, status as an official or other language, and status as majority language or mother tongue (first language), alternative language, medium of education, second language, or foreign language. In the later 20c, non-native users of English have come to...

Australian English

Australian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,454 words

...society described the life of the convicts. A major distinction was maintained between bond and free , as in free emigrant, free native, free labourer, free servant , and the distinction between free and freed . The settlements were populated in part by convicts and the attendant military forces, in part by free settlers. Though convicts who had served their sentences or obtained pardons (known from 1822 as emancipists ) became free in their own eyes and those of the law, they often had difficulty escaping the stigma of servitude and obtained only a...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...late, as compared for example with Spanish settlement in Central and South America. In 1497 , John Cabot explored the coast of what became the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, but no effort was made to establish a colony for nearly another century, when Humphrey Gilbert claimed the island of Newfoundland ( 1583 ) and Walter Raleigh attempted his ill-fated settlement at Roanoke, Virginia ( 1584 ). Raleigh ’s ‘lost colony’ did not survive, so the first permanent English settlement on the mainland was at Jamestown in 1607 . Both religious and...

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