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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...also cater to group formation. In sharing information on their own (private, semi-private, or public) profiles, users make important claims about how they view and position themselves vis-à-vis others and how they view others vis-à-vis themselves. SNSs became popular in the 2000s, particularly from the latter half onwards, and are central to current definitions of the worldwide web as social and participatory ( see web 2.0 ). They are hence typically classified as ‘social media’. Yet aside from this defining feature, there is much variation among SNS...

Pretender

Pretender   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...on account of his resemblance in babyhood to the rotund Orton. The name came to be applied to anyone of small stature, and by the middle of the 20th century ‘titchy’ was a general British colloquialism for ‘small’. See also b of bk . Warbeck, Perkin . A Flemish pretender to the English throne during the reign of King Henry VII , Perkin Warbeck ( c. 1474–99 ) appeared at the court of Burgundy in 1490 , claiming to be one of the princes in the tower – Richard, Duke of York, the younger son of King Edward IV , smuggled out of England and hidden on the...

Small

Small   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...drawn from the fashionable talk of the period. The usage is often tongue-in-cheek or journalistically formulaic for anything small. Small change Money in the form of coins rather than notes. Small change is also a collective expression for trivial remarks. Small claims court A local court in which claims for small amounts can be heard and decided quickly and cheaply. Smallclothes Once a term for men’s close-fitting breeches, now for underclothes or ‘smalls’. Small deer Any small animal. The expression came to be used metaphorically for trifling matters or any...

Regimental and divisional nicknames

Regimental and divisional nicknames   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...regiments and US Army divisions. As a result of amalgamations, especially in the last quarter of the 20th century, some of the regiments have ceased to have an independent existence, while others have been disbanded altogether. But their nicknames live on in many cases and are part and parcel of British military history. British Army Regimental Nicknames : Assaye Regiment, The The 74th Foot, later the 2nd Battalion Highland Light Infantry, subsequently part of the Royal Highland Fusiliers ( Princess Margaret ’s Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment). The regiment...

Latin

Latin   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,385 words

...however, writers continued to evoke in English the images and phrases of ancient Rome, often only slightly adapted, and to allude fluently to topics that, until well into the 20c, their readership could generally grasp without editorial help. In addition, numerous Latin quotations and tags have enjoyed an extended life in English to the present day. Latin in English A large part of the lexicon of Latin has entered English in two major waves: mainly religious vocabulary from the time of Old English until the Reformation, and mainly scientific, scholarly,...

Call, A

Call, A   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...epithets at someone. Sticks and stones May break my bones But words can never hurt me. Call a spade a spade, To To be outspoken or blunt, even to the point of rudeness; to call things by their proper names without any beating about the bush. The idea arose in the latter part of the 20th century that the ‘spade’ in question is the contemptuous slang term for a black person, and the expression fell under a taboo, especially in the USA. Appropriate as this might be as an expression of rudeness, it is erroneous: the spade is a common-or-garden digging...

Rhetoric

Rhetoric   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,875 words

...were organized into bodies of received knowledge. In some societies, they were largely a part of religious ritual, as in India; in others, such as Greece, they were part of the craft of speaking which in the 5c bc became the foundation of education in city states like Athens and Sparta. Greek rhetoric The story is told of exiles who returned to Syracuse, a Greek colony in Sicily, after the overthrow of a tyrant. Because they needed to organize their claims to appropriate land, they hired teachers to help them argue their cases, and, as a result, the...

Quotation

Quotation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,188 words

...1838, 2.2) Misquotation and non-quotation Until the 20c, quotation was largely from written and printed sources; in recent decades, however, quotations have increasingly been taken from live performance, especially speeches and interviews, the taking of excerpts being done in shorthand or, more recently still, with the help of tape recorders. As a result, ‘quotees’ are increasingly aware of the risks of being misquoted or may take refuge from the consequences of what they have said by claiming that they were misquoted. People in the public eye may seek...

Bible

Bible   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,836 words
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...who in 1755 published his own NT for ‘unlettered men who understand only their mother tongue’. Subsequent translations, from the Revised Version ( 1884 ) through to late 20c versions, have not had the aim of producing work in an improved literary style, but of claiming greater fidelity to the original Hebrew or Greek as understood by the most recent scholarship. Some of these claims have been contested and the translations have made no special impact on the language. The Revised Version was the result of over ten years’ work by Protestant scholars in the...

Fakes

Fakes   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

... two young girls living at Bingley, Yorkshire, 16-year-old Elsie Wright and her nine-year-old cousin Frances Griffiths , claimed to have seen fairies in nearby Cottingley Dell and taken photographs of them. The story came to the attention of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle , by then a convert to spiritualism. He believed the girls and vouched for the veracity of the photographs, even taking lantern slides made from them to the USA as part of a lecture tour. In the 1980s Frances, then in her seventies, admitted that the pictures had been faked by photographing...

Basic English

Basic English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,324 words

...of push him ), and to be part of a phrasal verb ( put together replacing assemble ). By such means, he considered that his operators could stand in for some 4,000 verbs. He accepted figurative extensions of meaning and supplemented the basic words with numbers, names, and lists of technical terminology according to need. Ogden described the system in Basic English ( 1930 ) and The System of Basic English ( 1934 ). In 1940 he published The General Basic English Dictionary , which gave ‘more than 40,000 senses of over 20,000 words, in basic English’....

Three

Three   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...that the matter in question is not contentious, but a two-line whip means that the government expects opposition and that most backbenchers are expected to vote. Three-mile limit The usual limit of territorial waters around their coasts claimed by maritime states, including Great Britain and the USA. Some states claim much wider jurisdiction and disputes over territorial waters are not infrequent. Three Musketeers, The athos , porthos and aramis , the three heroes of Alexandre Dumas ’s novels The Three Musketeers ( 1844 ), Twenty Years After (...

Private

Private   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...official duty. The term originated from a gossip item published in Private Eye in 1963 which referred to an incident at a party where a journalist, Mary Kenny , had a ‘meaningful confrontation’ with a former cabinet colleague of President Obote of Uganda. Kenny later claimed that they had been ‘upstairs discussing Uganda’. See also goldenballs ; tired and emotional ; who he? Private hotel A hotel that is not obliged to take all comers. Private Member’s Bill A public Bill introduced by a private Member as distinct from a member of the government....

Big

Big   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...in the 1920s by John J. FitzGerald , a reporter for the Morning Telegraph , who used it to refer to the city’s racetracks and who claimed to have heard it used by stable-hands in New Orleans in 1921 . African-American jazz musicians in the 1930s took up the name to refer to the city (and especially harlem ) as the jazz capital of the world. The nickname then faded from use but was revived in 1971 as part of a publicity campaign by Charles Gillett , president of the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau. The general allusion is to a city that...

Green

Green   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...the faculties are not impaired and the spirits are still youthful. Hence, immature in age or judgement, inexperienced; also simple, raw, easily imposed upon, as a characteristic greenhorn . See also salad days . ‘He is so jolly green’, said Charley. Since the latter part of the 20th century the word has been much used with reference to concern for environmental issues ( see also green party ). A government or corporation can ‘establish its green credentials’ by taking action to improve (or reduce harm to) the environment, wind turbines are regarded...

English

English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,001 words

..., Feb. 1989 ). The language English is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, along with, among others, Danish, Dutch, and German. Once confined to Britain, it is now used throughout the world. Its use and distribution can be discussed in various ways, including geographical distribution, status as an official or other language, and status as majority language or mother tongue (first language), alternative language, medium of education, second language, or foreign language. In the later 20c, non-native users of English have come to...

Giants

Giants   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...there is complete certainty. Josef Winkelmaier ( 1865–87 ), an Austrian, was measured at 8ft 9in (2.6m). Zeng Jinlian ( 1964–82 ), of Hunan Province, China, was measured at 8ft 1¾in (2.5m), and the tallest woman in medical history. In addition to the above: Del Rio claimed that, in 1572 , he saw a Piedmontese man more than 9ft (2.7m) high. M.Thevet published ( 1575 ) an account of a South American giant, the skeleton of which he measured at 11ft 5in (3.5m). Gaspard Bauhin ( 1560–1624 ), the anatomist and botanist, mentioned a Swiss man 8ft (2.4m)...

Australian English

Australian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,454 words

...society described the life of the convicts. A major distinction was maintained between bond and free , as in free emigrant, free native, free labourer, free servant , and the distinction between free and freed . The settlements were populated in part by convicts and the attendant military forces, in part by free settlers. Though convicts who had served their sentences or obtained pardons (known from 1822 as emancipists ) became free in their own eyes and those of the law, they often had difficulty escaping the stigma of servitude and obtained only a...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...late, as compared for example with Spanish settlement in Central and South America. In 1497 , John Cabot explored the coast of what became the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, but no effort was made to establish a colony for nearly another century, when Humphrey Gilbert claimed the island of Newfoundland ( 1583 ) and Walter Raleigh attempted his ill-fated settlement at Roanoke, Virginia ( 1584 ). Raleigh ’s ‘lost colony’ did not survive, so the first permanent English settlement on the mainland was at Jamestown in 1607 . Both religious and...

King

King   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...superstition’ and it was last practised by Queen Anne , who touched Dr Johnson without effecting a cure in 1712 . Between the reign of Charles I ( 1625–49 ) and 1719 the Book of Common Prayer contained an office for the touching. The old and young pretenders also claimed this power. King’s Friends The name given in the early years of George III ’s reign ( 1760–1820 ) to those politicians, mainly Tories, who for various reasons supported the crown and its ministries. The term was used with derogatory implications by the whigs . Their...

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