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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Wisdom of Solomon

Wisdom of Solomon   Reference library

Erik Eynikel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,763 words

...material is found in the first part of the book ( 1:1 — 6:21 ) because there the author explicitly contrasts the attitudes of the righteous with the wicked. The words righteous and righteousness occur 14 times in this part (of a total of 35 times in the whole book). The righteous are those seeking the Lord and finding him through wisdom ( 1:4 ) and the spirit of discipline ( 1:5 ). These are two important themes in Greek thinking too. The righteous are equated with the spirit of wisdom in 1:6 , and in 1:7 it is claimed that this spirit is sent by God....

Law

Law   Reference library

Dale Patrick and William Loader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,976 words

...by Jews, from the infancy narrative where it is especially emphasized ( 2:22–24 , 27 ) to Paul, depicted as Law-observant to the end ( 21:20–26 ), and by Gentiles as it applied to them, which Luke sees summarized in the so-called Apostolic decree ( 15:20 ). John. John’s gospel embodies a Christology that has appropriated images used of divine Wisdom/Law, such as bread, light, life, water, and Word, so that Jesus claims them for himself. One could read the words, “The law indeed was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ” ( 1:17 ), as...

Exodus

Exodus   Reference library

Richard Nelson Boyce

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,228 words

...of God in all creation. If the first part of Exodus describes a God whose character moves toward liberation and the second part a God whose character yearns for covenantal partnership, this section describes a God who invites human agents to join God in ordering a space for God in the heart of this community that reflects God’s ordering power throughout the cosmos. Signs of God at the center. As the first part of Exodus was linked to the second part of Exodus through the theme of liberation from Egypt, so the second part is linked to the third through the...

Casuistic Ethics

Casuistic Ethics   Reference library

Friedrich Wilhelm Horn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,528 words

...( Rev 13 ). These images are probably best understood as personifications of the Roman emperor and the Roman provinces whose universal claims of power are radically rejected by the author of Revelation ( Rev 13:4 , 6–7 ). In contrast, he illustrates the cosmic downfall of a world subservient to the Roman Empire, as well as the remaking of a new cosmos. For the present, however, the churches are called to resist the claims and demands of the state, displaying steadfastness in faith even to the point of martyrdom (cf. the Seven Letters to the Seven Churches,...

Leviticus

Leviticus   Reference library

Walter C. Kaiser Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,455 words

...Both claims are probably part of the total picture here. These claims are consistent with the fact that Israel was still in the midst of their wilderness wanderings when these laws were promulgated (e.g., the people were dwelling “in the camp,” Lev 4:12 ; 9:11 ; 10:4–5 ; 14:3 ; 17:3 ; 24:10 ). These references, along with the repeated formula, “The Lord said to Moses” help to explain why both the synagogue and the church held to the essential unity of this book and to a Mosaic authorship well into the medieval period, for the internal claims of the...

Power

Power   Reference library

Kathy Ehrensperger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,463 words

...aspects. Thus the Pauline letters can also be explored informed by theories of power, which move beyond mere power-over as a domination paradigm. In light of such theories it cannot be denied that the Pauline letters present claims to authority and power on the part of the apostle. There are aspects of an asymmetrical power claim, Paul being in the position of the one who is asked for, and provides guidance, and expects to be followed in his guidance. Rather than being evidence of a discourse of domination, this can be seen in the vein of a transformative...

Kidnapping

Kidnapping   Reference library

Marius J. Nel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,118 words

...as conducted by the Sicarii in order to obtain hostages as leverage for the release of their captured members, is reported by Josephus ( A.J . 20.208–210), while Philo ( Spec. Laws 4.13, 19) considered kidnappers the worst of thieves, as they steal the most excellent thing (humans) that exists upon the earth, and therefore deserving death as punishment. In late antiquity, Augustine ( Ep . 10 * .5) claimed that kidnappings were happening on such a massive scale in North Africa that it had decimated the population of free people. The significance of...

Socialism

Socialism   Reference library

Randall W. Reed

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,504 words

...of Christianity,” 1908. http://www.marxists.org/archive/kautsky/1908/christ/index.htm (accessed 20 April 2013). Kautsky’s work in the early part of the twentieth century provided important and influential analysis of society, history, and theory. Lenin, Vladimir . “The State and Revolution: The Marxist Theory of the State and the Task of the Proletariat in the Revolution,” 1917. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/index.htm (accessed 20 April 2013). Lenin, who was the architect and leader of the Communist Revolution in Russia, wrote...

Samuel

Samuel   Reference library

Ralph W. Klein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,628 words

...Philistines put pressure on Achish to keep David away from the battle. David protested his innocence to Achish, but the Philistines insisted that he be kept away. So the book claims, despite David’s strange affiliation with the Philistines, that he played no part in the battle in which Saul fell. After the death of Saul, an Amalekite came to David with Saul’s crown and armlet and claimed that he had killed King Saul at the latter’s request. David ordered the Amalekite’s immediate execution because he had raised his hand against the Lord ’s anointed ( 2 Sam ...

Friendship

Friendship   Reference library

John T. Fitzgerald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,450 words

...( Jer 38:22 ) and the results of that treachery extremely dire ( Zech 13:6 ). The Writings. This section contains 54 references (NRSV) to friendship, by far the most in any part of the Tanak. Most of these occur in Proverbs (19), Job (15), and Psalms (10). Proverbs. Reflecting the fact that many friendships are utilitarian, Proverbs notes that the rich have many friends ( 14:20 ; 19:4 ) because of the gifts they bestow ( 19:6 ), whereas the poor are either friendless ( 19:4 ) or shunned by their friends in times of need ( 19:7 ). Recognizing that some...

Romans

Romans   Reference library

Cilliers Breytenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,212 words

... 9b , 12–13 , 15 , 17 , 20b , 25–29 , 33 ; 10:5–8 , 11 , 13 , 15b , 16b , 18–21 ; 11:2–4 , 8–10 , 26–27 , 34–35 ; 12:19–20 ; 13:9 ; 14:11 ; 15:3b , 9b–12 , 21 ). The main argument in each section of the body cannot be construed in detail here (cf. Breytenbach 2012 , 9–13 ; Jewett, 2006 ). Rather, selected central arguments are highlighted. Part 1. In 1:18—3:20 , Paul inititates a diatribē , arguing that all, Greeks ( 1:18–32 ) and Jews ( 2:17–29 ), are under the power of sin ( 3:9 ) and are sinners ( 3:20 ) who have lost the doxa ...

Decalogue

Decalogue   Reference library

Mark W. Bartusch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,722 words

...unanimous position. Focusing on the relative placement of “house” and “wife” in the two versions of the tenth commandment, Richard H. Freund argues that this detail may provide the best evidence for determining the relative dating of these texts. In Exodus 20 , the wife seems to have been counted as part of the neighbor’s household property, since house comes first in the list of things one is not to covet; included within the neighbor’s house, in first position, is the neighbor’s wife. On the other hand, in Deuteronomy 5 , the neighbor’s wife appears at...

Guénon, René

Guénon, René (1886–1951)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
901 words

...of creation as an application and manifestation of the metaphysical principles that are contained in the perennial teachings of religions, and applies them to numerous subjects that he examines in his works. Both the value of the traditional sciences of nature and the misguided claims of modern secular science are judged in proportion to their proximity or distance from these principles. Bibliography Introduction to the Study of Hindu Doctrines , trans. M. Pallis , London: Luzac, 1945. Man and His Becoming According to the Vedanta , trans. R. Nicholson ,...

Retribution

Retribution   Reference library

Myles Werntz and John B. White

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,225 words

...appeal most frequently to the New Testament minimization of human retribution ( Redekop, 2008 , p. 20). These examples at least demonstrate how the gravitas of sin can be maintained while equally taking seriously the other core elements of the gospel, i.e., mercy, forgiveness, and redemption. Within death penalty discussions, the issue of retribution has come into question as well. In the Hebrew Bible, the death penalty is permitted as part of a comprehensive confessional legal code. Because the New Testament appears to name civic authorities as...

Judgment

Judgment   Reference library

Michael Labahn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
4,022 words

...). Johannine faith includes a vivid relationship between Christ and his believers (e.g., 14:20–21 ; 15:1–17 ); such a relationship includes ethical behavior of a creative love relationship with brothers and sisters in the community but also toward the world, as their mutual love is a sign to the people outside the community ( 13:35 ). If we can allow a “bi-temporal” Johannine eschatology as claimed by Udo Schnelle ( 2008 , p. 704), the future eschatological claim will not establish or motivate Johannine ethics but there is still a reference that the...

Punishment

Punishment   Reference library

Jože Krašovec

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
5,382 words

...attribute Pharaoh’s refusal to obey divine commands to God’s hardening his heart ( 4:21 ; 7:3 ; 9:12 ; 10:1 , 20 , 27 ; 11:10 ; 14:4 , 8 , 17 ). A similar view explains conquests in Joshua: “For it was the Lord’s doing to harden their hearts that they should come against Israel in battle, in order that they should be utterly destroyed, and should receive no mercy but be exterminated, as the Lord commanded Moses” ( 11:20 ). Similar claims are made that God inflicted an evil spirit on Saul to torment him and to incite him to evil ( 1 Sam 16:14–23 ; ...

Antinomianism

Antinomianism   Reference library

James D. G. Dunn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,218 words

...sinful passions ( Rom 5:20 ; 7:5 ), but he went on to praise the law as “holy and just and good” ( 7:12 ) and to defend the law as both manipulated by the power of sin ( 7:7–25 ) and too weakened by the flesh to be effective without the Spirit ( 8:3–4 ). So Paul’s view of the law was much more nuanced than the gospel/law antithesis and the charge of antinomianism imply. A Paul who expected final judgment to be of works and according to works certainly saw the law as having a part in indicating what God demands ( Rom 2:6–16 ; 3:20 ; 2 Cor 5:10 ). Other NT...

Ethnicity and Ethnography

Ethnicity and Ethnography   Reference library

Katherine E. Southwood

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,400 words

...as a strategy for survival among subordinate groups ( A Radical Jew: Paul and the Politics of Identity [Contraversions 1; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994 ]). Thus, Boyarin claimed that Paul presents an antidocetic, anti-Gnostic argument that is motivated by a Hellenistic desire for “the One,” beyond hierarchy and difference. That is, the claim that a universal humanity existed, in which—although predicated on the dualism of flesh and spirit, such that while the body is particular, marked through practice as Judean or Greek, and through...

Forgiveness and Reconciliation

Forgiveness and Reconciliation   Reference library

James Alfred Loader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,099 words

...name of reconciliation. The mending of relations can also be an outcome of other events, such as sensible negotiation (e.g., Gen 13:1–12 ), compensation ( Gen 20:14–16 ), restitution ( Gen 20:14b ; cf. Num 5:7 ), pragmatic prevention of mutual harm ( Gen 26:26–31 ), or marital communication ( 1 Cor 7:11 ). Accordingly, forgiveness implies the presence of wrongdoing, offense, or sin on the part of one of the sides involved, while reconciliation does not necessarily have this implication (but in the Bible often does, as will be shown below). Due to the...

Life

Life   Reference library

William P. Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
6,127 words

...grounded in humankind being “made in God’s image,” a powerful claim that could potentially rule out all forms of killing. Nevertheless, biblical tradition does accommodate killing where it is deemed appropriate, such as in war and capital punishment (e.g., Deut 20:1–4 ; 1 Sam 15:3 ). With due process, the death penalty applies to various crimes that God deems reprehensible, including murder and child sacrifice (e.g., Gen 9:6 ; Exod 21:12–17 , 29 ; 22:19 ; 31:15 ; Lev 18:21 ; 20:2–5 ; Deut 13:5 ; 17:2–7 ; 19:11–12 ; 24:16 ). Particularly...

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