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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Berber

Berber   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,135 words

...Their Tuareg cousins have preserved a Lybic-derived script called Tifinagh. Berbers claim not only their ancient territory from Egypt to the Atlantic, but a large diaspora in Europe and the Americas as well. They encompass sizeable linguistic groups: up to 40 percent of the population of Morocco; 30 percent for Algeria; up to 20 percent each for Tunisia and Libya; and 2 percent for Egypt. Thamazigt speakers are found from Senegal to Chad, Mali to Burkina Faso, and in part of the Afro-Asiatic family that includes Semitic, Cushitic, Ancient Egyptian, and...

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi

Boulaga, Fabien Eboussi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,172 words

...their being, behaviors and anthropological objects (art, oral literature, etc.), and “it is we who are able to tell them in a precise manner what their intimate conception of beings is” as claimed by Tempels ( La Philosophie bantoue , pp. 20–21), this whole ontology is an incoherent “description” of an inconsistent, if not inexistent reality. If Tempels’s claim is right, then between Bantu “mythical thinking” and its understanding or systematization by Tempels there is no objective or intellectual mediation to guarantee the validity of ethnophilosophical...

Dreams

Dreams   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,272 words

...Dreams are part of the theoretical dimension of African religion that construes intertwined spirit and matter, and this view is the basis for beliefs, values, and rituals. This is an aspect of the holistic conceptual system from which symbolic imagery and rhythm of knowledge in indigenous African epistemology are derived. Dreams in African systems of thought are full of metaphors, imagery, and symbolism used to give meaning to events and to form bases for preparation for future occurrences. In African American culture, dreams are part of healing...

Tribe

Tribe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,062 words

...genocide of Tutsi, and current local struggles in the Niger Delta against the oil-based Nigerian state and transnational capital are cases in which “ethnic” identities were hardened and mobilized as a result of, not a cause of, conflict. With tribalism, a name quickly became a claim, an intellectual category a political causality, and custom an explanation for postcolonial failure. If anthropology had sporadic influence on colonial states, they often supported the new discipline with funding, protection, and research agendas (Asad; Ekeh). From the late...

Ibeji

Ibeji   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,103 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of twins and instead to pay tribute to these doubled offspring. Mothers of twins were instructed to dance in the markets every five days out of respect, and because these women received money for their dancing, the families of twins quickly became prosperous. Another story claims that twin infanticide was ended when one of the wives of the Alaafin Ajaka, an ancient king of Oyo and brother of Shango, gave birth to twins. In this version, the king single-handedly transformed tradition out of a desire to save the lives of his own offspring. Both mythologies...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,620 words

...such as Omar Bongo (41 years in power), Muammar Gaddafi (39), Gnassingbe Eyadema (38), Eduardo Dos Santos (28), Robert Mugabe (28), Hosni Mubarak (27), Yoweri Museveni (22), Paul Biya (25), Denis Sassou Nguesso (20), Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali (21), King Makhosetive Mswati (21), Lansana Conte (20), Milton Obote (15), Idi Amin , Kibaki , and Nunjoma , among others. Despite the shortcomings of democracy in Africa, it is characterized by constitutional rule and periodic elections. This means that the constitution must be the...

Walker, Alice

Walker, Alice   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,994 words

...her novel The Color Purple , Alice Walker came to prominence nationally. Some black men were enraged with Walker’s characterization of Mister, the abusive, womanizing, tight-fisted farmer who marries Celie simply to have someone service his needs and those of his children. Many claimed that Walker’s depiction represented not only black manhood at its ugliest but also a definitive and provocative feminist statement about black men. Among those black men incensed by Steven Speilberg’s film production of The Color Purple were syndicated columnist and television...

Scientific Institutions in Africa

Scientific Institutions in Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,275 words

...by the first decade of the twentieth century. These developments eventually culminated in 1901 , during the Anglo-Boer War, with the founding of the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. By the end of the nineteenth century, as European countries staked out claims to most of the African continent, colonial officials thought of scientific techniques as the most modern approach to administration (indeed, the term “scientist” had been coined only a few decades earlier). Colonial governments added scientific departments and adopted an approach...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
7,361 words

...and shows of country folk living in villages transplanted to France for national and local exhibitions in the 1900 s to 1920 s. Africans’ Abilities. Integration of Africans into modern civilization raised questions among Europeans about the abilities of Africans whom they claimed to civilize. First, were they reliable enough to be trusted as managers of European interests and assets, or should European firms and administrations be concerned about embezzlement and laziness? Africans were expected to relent against European colonization, or were seen as...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
15,331 words

...of Spain that was under Muslim rule until the Reconquista (the Catholic reconquest) at the end of the fifteenth century, was culturally, intellectually, and politically connected with the northwestern part of the continent, forming with it one single region known as Maghrib (in Arabic, the “West” of the Muslim world), while Egypt was considered part of the Machrek (East). On the other hand, the merely geographical definition of North Africa in contrast with sub-Saharan or “black” Africa does not do justice to the history of African thought: Egypt...

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