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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Illuminism

Illuminism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,469 words

...and they had a well-established reputation as honest, hardworking people. They were part of the early generation of Conversos who, under pressure, had adopted Christianity and repudiated their ancestors' religion. Social ferment had begun to create a class distinction based primarily on religion but also on race: “Old Christians,” or Castizos , who had no Jewish blood; and “New Christians,” or Conversos , who, although practicing Christians, or claiming to be so, were of Jewish origin. A third caste was made up of those converted to Christianity...

Scottish Books of Discipline

Scottish Books of Discipline   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,073 words

...in order to attend to the claims of their everyday occupations. Similarly, deacons were to be elected for life from the congregational membership, but as financial officers, whose duties consisted of collecting the church's revenues and of distributing poor relief, they were not assigned a seat, as were “governors” (ministers, doctors, and elders), on the courts of the church. Unlike ministers and doctors, who were employed on a full-time, salaried basis, elders and deacons received no stipend and were not understood to form part of what might be called a...

Articles of Religion

Articles of Religion   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,847 words

...no longer seemed of much importance in the controversies of the time. Thus the number of the articles was reduced to thirty-nine. Two changes of importance were further made in the Latin version of the articles sanctioned by the queen and her council in 1563 : the first part of article 20, on the authority of the church, was strengthened against possible sectarian challenge; and the article on the non-participation of the wicked in the Eucharist was left out, possibly as a negotiating point with Roman Catholics. The latter was, however, reinserted in 1571 ,...

Philippists

Philippists   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,332 words

...Wilhelm . Matthias Flacius Illyricus und seine Zeit . 2 vols. Erlangen, 1859–1861. Important survey regarding Flacius's part in controversies. Quere, Ralph W. Melanchthonian Motifs in the Formula's Eucharistic Christology. In Discord, Dialogue, and Concord: Studies in the Lutheran Reformation's Formula of Concord , edited by Lewis W. Spitz and Wenzel Lohff , pp. 58–73. Philadelphia, 1977. Important though perhaps overstated claim of Melanchthonian influence on the Formula of Concord's treatment of the Lord's Supper and Christology. Ritschl, Otto . ...

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII of England (1491–1547)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,733 words

...the position papers. Wolsey was useful in drawing the fire for unpopular decisions, as in 1525 , when Henry withdrew the demand for the Amicable Grant, claiming ignorance of the sum asked for. Wolsey's enthusiasm for the outward display of a prince of the church added to the prestige of Henry's court; he was, after all, Henry's cardinal. Henry's position as king seemed impregnable; his ability to play the part of gracious sovereign contributed vitally to that result, as did the absence of any obvious alternative. His ability to weather the storms ahead rested...

Lollardy

Lollardy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,932 words

...entered the pool of reforming literature with the printing, in the 1530s and 1540s, of ten old Lollard English texts, preceded by Luther's 1528 edition of a Latin Lollard commentary on Revelation . Coincidence of geography, family names, and religious opinions has led to claims of Lollard ancestry for Anglicans, Puritans, and Dissenters. However that may be, the Lollard's long-standing communities of scripturally oriented individuals, independent habits of thought, and vernacular religious literacy undoubtedly prepared the soil for another generation's...

Salzburg

Salzburg   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,917 words

...an “oppressed church” and simply demanded freedom to emigrate for those who so desired, without insisting on the usual three-year grace period. A series of unauthorized gatherings served as a pretext for the archiepiscopal government of Chancellor Hieronymus Cristani di Rallo to claim that a “rebellion of the mountain peasants” was at hand. On 11 November 1731 , the Authorization for Emigration was officially promulgated and stipulated that all Protestants must leave the country—residents who were not landowners (servants and maids) within eight days,...

Anglicanism

Anglicanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,589 words

...his Challenge Sermon ( 1559 , 1560 ) claimed that Roman Catholic teachings such as those on transubstantiation and papal authority were innovations unknown to scripture, the early church fathers, or councils. In doing this Jewel was asserting the authority of scripture (with the tradition of the early church) while through the use of reason distinguishing between essentials and nonessentials, the latter being alterable by a national church (see the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, Article 6, on scripture, and Article 20, on the authority of the church), and...

Clergy

Clergy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,376 words

...the status of the clergy and made it the target of lay dissatisfaction. The gulf was further widened by the requirement that all in major orders (subdeacon, deacon, presbyter, and bishop) remain celibate. The clergy was also hedged about by their special legal status. They claimed immunity from secular taxation, exemption from military service and other civic duties, and the privilegium fori , the right to be tried in special clerical courts for criminal and some civil offenses. This “benefit of clergy” actually extended to groups beyond the ordained and...

Confession

Confession   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,628 words

...single pregnant women, lovers caught in the act, and priests' concubines) as part of the expiation of their sins, but, by an understanding long antedating the Reformation, priests were to keep private confession private and not assign a public penance that might reveal the nature of the confessed sin. The Medieval Framework Medieval theologians asserted that private confession to priests was commanded in the New Testament (the most common places are Mt. 16:18f, 18:15ff.; Jn. 20:21; Jas. 5:6; and Lk. 17:14) even though in no text does Christ explicitly...

Thomism

Thomism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,588 words

...insisted on the primacy of grace, while Jesuits such as Luis de Molina ( 1535–1600 ) sought to safeguard the role of free will. But both sides appealed to the authority of Thomas to buttress their position. It was no longer a matter of agreeing or disagreeing with Thomas: all claimed to be his followers. With the authority of Thomas now beyond question, the dispute was henceforth over rival interpretations of Thomas. In this sense Thomism had triumphed. The radical pluralism that was the main feature of the late medieval theological landscape was a thing of...

Flanders

Flanders   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,960 words

...prepared to grant them a period of grace to settle their affairs, they had eventually either to return to the Catholic church or go into exile. According to one recent estimate as many as 175,000 southern Netherlands may have migrated, at least in part for religious reasons, between 1540 and 1630 . The greater part left to settle in Holland in the 1580s and 1590s, though some stragglers delayed their departure until after the end of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621 . The scale of the emigration aggravated the problems faced by the Flemish towns after their...

Colloquies

Colloquies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
7,562 words

...prevailed with respect to article 20, namely whether works resulting from faith and grace are to be considered meritorious. As regards article 21, agreement prevailed that the saints in heaven intercede with God and that the celebration of the memory of saints is Christian. There was no agreement about the invocation of saints. As regards the remaining differences concerning these three articles, Eck saw a disagreement in vocabulary rather than in substance. In the negotiations about the seven articles of the second part of the Augsburg Confession there was...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,746 words

...Habsburgs exerted considerable influence in the archbishopric of Salzburg, the land was an ecclesiastical principality with its own seat in the imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire. It did not become part of the house of Austria's holdings until 1805 . On the other hand, the Habsburgs also controlled areas in the southwest of the empire which are now part of the Federal Republic of Germany, and in the southeastern regions of Europe, currently incorporated into Slovenia, Croatia, and, in the case of Trieste, Italy. During much of the Reformation era, the...

Women

Women   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
8,307 words

...when they were part of a reform drive; even more than the medieval Crusades, the fight against Protestants was to be a masculine affair. The masculine nature of the Counter-Reformation was intimately related to one of the key aspects of church reform—an enforcement of cloistering for women. Reforms of the church beginning with the Gregorian in the eleventh century had all emphasized the importance of the control of female sexuality and the inappropriateness of women religious being in contact with lay society; claustration was a key part of the restrictions...

Zurich

Zurich   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,875 words

...council had made this decision before the disputation began. Moeller claims that this decision marked the founding of the first Protestant church in Europe. This development also made Zwingli the founding father of the Reformed churches. Similar reformations took place in the imperial cities of southwest Germany and enabled the town councils to gain full control over local churches. Thomas Brady's criticism of Moeller—namely that the imperial cities were not isolated, but rather were part of the medieval landscape—is also of value. Zwingli's Urban...

Saints

Saints   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,155 words

...and Hussites but also from reformers within the institutional church—both Jean de Gerson (Charlier) and Nicholas of Cusa attacked observation of dubious saints' days. A more searching critique was offered by humanists whose rational and historical bent made them skeptical of claims made for relics, pilgrimages, and some of the more excessive cults. Desiderius Erasmus 's devastating attack on the cult of Saint Thomas of Canterbury undoubtedly contributed to the complete uprooting of that shrine during the Reformation (admittedly helped by royal...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...Lake calls the conformist position and later archbishop of Canterbury. In the Admonition Controversy Cartwright and Whitgift agreed that the temporal and ecclesiastical worlds were in theory distinct but about little else. Whitgift claimed that the visible church had to be subject to secular authorities, a point made in large part to defend the prince's headship. This, of course, effectively collapsed the church into the state. Cartwright, instead, vehemently preserved the gap between them. Only the state had coercive powers, and presbyterianism was the only...

Calvin, John

Calvin, John (1509–1564)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,462 words

...nor schismatics, nor sectarians, nor anarchists who seek to attack the church and royal authority. They belong to the “true” church of Christ, as opposed to the “Church under the papacy,” which in visible form (meaning power, wealth, and the use of legal power) raises its claim above consciences. In contrast, the “true” church possesses as marks, in the sense of the Augsburg Confession, only the pure preaching of the word and the right administration of the sacraments (CR 1,21; compare Bekenntnisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche [hereafter...

Church Offices

Church Offices   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
12,362 words

...Protestantism was transformed into a vocational status. “Vocation” and “office,” as a spiritual calling and activity relating to the world in the economic and political realm, were symmetrical and influenced the self-understanding of the new social group. From this also arose the claim for a special social status, the status ecclesiasticus as distinct from the congregation, which was composed of the status politicus and the status oeconomicus . Echoing the doctrine of the three estates, such arguments upholding the special status of the spiritual office...

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