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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Seleucids

Seleucids   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...stability of Demetrius's rule did not last long. His enemies, with Rome's blessing, put up against him Alexander Balas, who claimed to be Antiochus IV's son. Demetrius was defeated ( 152 bce ) and a weak ruler, subject to Ptolemaic interference, took over. Under Balas, Jonathan, Judas's brother and successor, became ruler of Judea and a Seleucid representative in Israel. Alexander Balas appointed him high priest and thus made him part of the Seleucid administration. Jonathan's rise to power reflects both the disintegration of Seleucid rule and the...

Amram

Amram   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Amram plays no major part in Jubilees , which is generally linked to Aramaic Levi (1Q21, 4Q213–4Q214a) and the Testament of Qahat (4Q542). Significantly, in view of Josephus's writings, five copies of the Visions of Amram were found in Cave 4 at Qumran. Although this number of copies suffices to show that the work must have had some importance for the Qumran covenanters, no references to it occur in sectarian literature. In 1972 , Józef T. Milik published a substantial fragment of the Visions of Amram b (4Q544) and claimed that Origen had alluded to...

Revelation

Revelation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...[iv.20–21]). The author may also allude to other kinds of revelation. The “vision of knowledge” ( ḥazon da῾at ) may refer to eschatological revelation, and God's “wondrous mysteries” ( razei pel᾽ekhah ) may denote the same or imply cosmological secrets (cf. 1QH a ix.21 [i.19]). Much of the hymn is taken up with criticism of the author's opponents, who ridicule and belittle him (1QH a xii.8, 22 [iv.7, 21]). They change ( mvr ) the Torah, giving vinegar rather than the drink of knowledge (1QH a xii.10–11 [vi.9–10]). In addition, they claim to have...

Prince of the Congregation

Prince of the Congregation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of Biblical Literature 113 (1994), 81–91. Lays to rest the controversial claim that 4Q285 speaks of the death of the Prince of the Congregation, the Branch of David. Bauckham, Richard. “ The Messianic Interpretation of Isa. 10.34 in the Dead Sea Scrolls, 2 Baruch and the Preaching of John the Baptist. ” Dead Sea Discoveries, 2 (1995), 202–216. Bockmuehl, Markus. “ A ‘Slain Messiah’ in 4Q Serekh Milḥamah (4Q285)? ” Tyndale Bulletin 43 (1992), 155–169. Questions the claim that 4Q285 describes the killing or piercing of the Prince of the Congregation,...

Illuminism

Illuminism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,469 words

...and they had a well-established reputation as honest, hardworking people. They were part of the early generation of Conversos who, under pressure, had adopted Christianity and repudiated their ancestors' religion. Social ferment had begun to create a class distinction based primarily on religion but also on race: “Old Christians,” or Castizos , who had no Jewish blood; and “New Christians,” or Conversos , who, although practicing Christians, or claiming to be so, were of Jewish origin. A third caste was made up of those converted to Christianity...

Genesis Apocryphon

Genesis Apocryphon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Genesis . Only three columns (1QapGen xx–xxii) are more or less completely preserved; three others (1QapGen ii, xii, xix) have a substantial part that is legible; and other columns (1QapGen i, iii, v–vii, x–xi, xvi–xvii) have preserved a few words or a few lines. To this text also belongs 1Q20 (“Apocalypse de Lamech”), which in a recent identification by Bruce Zuckerman and Michael O. Wise has been shown to be part of column 0, as well as the seven-line so-called Trever fragment, now lost, which still awaits official publication. Written in a late Herodian...

Genesis, Commentary on

Genesis, Commentary on   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Abraham, about which little can be said, follow: They appear to be concerned with the Covenant of the Pieces ( Gn. 15.9 , 15.17 ; 4Q252 ii.11–13); the twelve princes ( Gn. 17.20 ; 4Q252 iii.1–2); the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah ( Gn. 18.31–32 ; 4Q252 iii.2–6), in which there is halakhic interpretation using phrases from Deuteronomy 13.16–17 , 20.11 , and 20.14 ; and the binding of Isaac ( Gn. 22.10–12 ; 4Q252 iii.6–10). Then there seems to be reference to the blessing of Jacob ( Gn. 28.3–4 ; 4Q252 iii.11–14). Discussion of the...

Women

Women   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of divorce, a receipt for the return of the dowry, or a deed of renunciation of claims like XḤev/Se 13. Widowhood. Marriage contracts Mur 20 and 21, deed of sale of plot Mur 30, marriage contracts Mur 116 and P.Yadin 10 show that the widow had a right to remain in her husband's house and be supported from his estate (while her dowry/ ketubbah remained intact), either as long as she wished (Mur 30 and 116), or until the heirs paid back the money of her dowry/ ketubbah (Mur 20 and 21, and P.Yadin 10). The rabbinic sources attribute the former practice to the...

Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...treat cosmology and astronomy (Book 2), physical and historical geography of the world (3–6), zoology (7–11), botany (12–19), medicine and drugs (20–32), and minerals and metals (33–37). While Pliny's work was used extensively through the Middle Ages as an authoritative text, by the end of the seventeenth century it was rejected by scientists. Pliny often linked together fact and fiction, making unsupported claims and exaggerations. Still, in the wealth of details it preserves about the ancient world and the state of scientific knowledge in Pliny's day, ...

Kingship

Kingship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

.... Although foreign kings ruled Judea during most of the Second Temple period, Hasmonean rulers claimed the royal title, beginning with Aristobulus I ( r.104–103 bce ), continuing through the reigns of Alexander Jannaeus ( 103–76 bce ), Shelamzion Alexander ( 76–67 bce ), Aristobulus II ( 67–63 bce ), and ending with Antigonus II ( 40–37 bce ). Herod the Great ( 37–4 bce ) also received the title, while it was denied to his son Herod Archelaus ( 4 bce–6 ce ; but see Mt. 2.2 , Jewish Antiquities 18.93). Herod Agrippa I ...

Apostolic Fathers

Apostolic Fathers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...text Baptismal Liturgy (4Q414) and from Grace after Meals (4Q434a), a blessing over food. No specific connection to the scrolls is likely. Barnabas 18.1–20.2 contains another version of the Two Ways schema, close to but not derived from the Didache . The extensive scriptural citations in Barnabas use texts that may derive, at least in part, from collections of “testimonies” or proofs for messianic claims. Two such collections are found in the scrolls, Florilegium (4Q174) and Testimonia (4Q175). Related is Catena a (4Q177), a commentary on Psalms 6–17,...

Temple Scroll

Temple Scroll   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...first century ce . This difference in writing and the fact that part of column v coincides with the beginning of column vi allows us to conclude with Yadin that the first sheet was added later, probably to repair the beginning of the scroll, which had been damaged. Temple Scroll b (11Q20). Another fragmentary copy of the Temple Scroll allows us to replace several lost sections of the first scroll. Temple Scroll b (11Q20), which was also discovered in 1956 , was acquired in 1962 as part of the Dutch allotment of manuscripts from Cave 11. The preliminary...

Scottish Books of Discipline

Scottish Books of Discipline   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,073 words

...in order to attend to the claims of their everyday occupations. Similarly, deacons were to be elected for life from the congregational membership, but as financial officers, whose duties consisted of collecting the church's revenues and of distributing poor relief, they were not assigned a seat, as were “governors” (ministers, doctors, and elders), on the courts of the church. Unlike ministers and doctors, who were employed on a full-time, salaried basis, elders and deacons received no stipend and were not understood to form part of what might be called a...

Rule of the Blessings

Rule of the Blessings   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...they act like angels of the presence, sharing their company in a yaḥad , the specific form of community life among priests during service. Particularly underlined is their judicial authority; their claim to cultic dues and to authority in general seems to be a universal one, concerning the gentiles as well. Of the benediction for the high priest the first part is unfortunately lost. The extant lines repeat in solemn words the principal characteristics of the priestly status in general, stressing, however, the high priest's representative role, his connection...

Psalms Scroll

Psalms Scroll   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...attributions. Not only so, but with the claim that David had composed 4,050 psalms and songs, the conservative attitude at Qumran would have been that a Davidic Psalter, whatever exactly that meant, ought to include as many of the psalms David supposedly composed as could be found! Clearly, it would be difficult to assume that the Psalter was already limited to 150 psalms; or, at least, such a tradition apparently provided no constraint at Qumran, nor presumably from wherever the Psalms Scroll came to be a part of the Qumran library. Not only so, but some...

Reworked Pentateuch

Reworked Pentateuch   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...well, such as the number of copies of a particular work. Many of the books that seem to be authoritative at Qumran later became part of the Jewish canon: the Torah, the Prophets, and Psalms . Others that seem to have authority were not included in the later canon, for example, 1 Enoch and Jubilees . However, there are many texts whose authoritative status is unclear, including the Reworked Pentateuch. The Reworked Pentateuch's claim to authority rests on its relationships to other Torah manuscripts, the book of Jubilees , and Temple Scroll a . Jubilees ...

Jesus

Jesus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...also 4QHodayot a 7.ii [now part of 1QHodayot a xxvi] and 4QHodayot e [4Q431 1]). The Qumran community's members, upon their entrance into the community, saw themselves as having already been transported into heaven (1QHodayot a xi.20, and perhaps also 4QWar Scroll a 11.i.11). Indeed, the Qumran devotee had already experienced a new creation (1QHodayot a xi.21, xix.13; compare vii [formerly xv] 16–17). With respect to the much-debated 1QHodayot a xi.21, on the basis of its context and the parallels with 1QHodayot a xi.20–23 in 1QHodayot a xix.10–14,...

Dualism

Dualism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and by the war which the spirits of light and darkness are waging within one's heart (1QRule of the Community vii.20–21, x.21; Damascus Document viii 1–2; 1QHodayot a xiv 19–22; 4QBerakhot f ). The basic anthropology behind this view is that God, who has created every spirit (1QRule of the Community i.10; 1QHodayot a vi.16b–32, ix.7–9), has allotted to each human being various parts of light and darkness (1QRule of the Community i.10, ii.20; 1QRule of the Congregation i.17–18; 1QHodayot a vi.8–16; cf. 4QHodayot b 7; 4QSapiential Work A a 81). According...

Proselytes

Proselytes   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...but receives all. The gates are open all the time and whoever wishes to enter may enter” ( Ex. Rab. 19,4). The amora Rabbi Berekhiah even alludes to an eschatological future in which proselytes may become priests ministering in the Temple. This is distinct from Paul's claim that the dividing barrier between Jews and gentiles already had been torn down through the abolition of the law ( Eph. 2.14 ). Qumran writings do not tell us anything specific about the procedure for the conversion of gentiles. On the other hand, the Rule of the Community...

Levi, Aramaic

Levi, Aramaic   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...surviving Greek and Aramaic fragments. Finally, Puech ( 1992 ) has claimed that the two copies of Aaronic Text A (4Q540–541), which show certain parallels to the Greek Testament of Levi 18, also derive from Aramaic Levi. This is not certain, but if it were true it would hint at the inclusion of this eschatological material in the book. We regard only those manuscripts with some textual overlap with the Cairo Genizah-Athos material as being a definite part of Aramaic Levi. Puech also refers to Milik's suggestion that the narrative 4Q458 contains the closing...

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