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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Aram-Damascus

Aram-Damascus   Reference library

K. Lawson Younger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,541 words

...Adad-idri (Hadadezer) with Ben-Hadad of 1 Kings 20 and 22 . (Since an earlier Ben-Hadad I is mentioned in 1 Kings 15:18–20 , this Ben-Hadad of 1 Kings 20 and 22 is often designated “Ben-Hadad II” by those following this option.) One fundamental problem is that the name in the monolith, “Adad-idri,” does not equate with Ben-Hadad (other than the deity element). Although the name “Ben-Hadad” may have been a dynastic title, there is no clear evidence of this. The second option understands 1 Kings 20 and 22 as misplaced by a mistaken biblical...

Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic material. Unlike many similar altars, those at Arad had no horns. The location of the altars...

Jezreel Valley

Jezreel Valley   Reference library

Yigal Levin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,199 words

...Taanach, and Megiddo; and a fragmentary stele of Sheshonk was found in 1925 in the dump-heaps of previous excavations at the site, unfortunately out of chronological context. However, since the mid-1990s this reconstruction has been part of a debate among archaeologists, historians, and biblical scholars, with some claiming that these strata should be “down-dated” from the tenth century b.c.e. to the ninth, negating the possibility that they could be related to any “historical” kingdom of David and Solomon. The towns of the Jezreel Valley next appear in...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

Carol Meyers and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,047 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the highest part of the site. It continued to be inhabited for many centuries. Western residential area. Although no clear stratigraphic remains have been discovered, numerous Attic black-ware sherds and quantities of late Hellenistic pottery, small finds, and coins indicate that occupation began on the summit in the Hasmonean era, if not already in the late Persian period. At the extreme west of the summit, rock-cut quarries testify to building activities during the Hellenistic and Early Roman periods. In the Roman period, a 7.2 ft (2.20 m) wide east–west...

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age

Puberty, Marriage, Sex, Reproduction, and Divorce, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
8,817 words

...the value of a male based on his age, offers some insight into the economic value of boys and men in ancient Israel. From age 5 to 20, a boy’s value is one-third or two-fifths of the value of an adult; between ages 20 and 60, a man’s value is that of an adult. The census in Numbers 1:3 indicates that men could take part in military activities at age 20, further supporting the idea that a male was considered an adult at age 20. Marriage. The biblical writers provide some details about marriage arrangements and wedding customs in ancient Israel, but they do...

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age

Feasting, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jacob L. Wright and Michael J. Chan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,052 words

...hosts a feast for Abner, Saul’s former general, the latter agrees to rally all of Israel to the side of the king ( 2 Sam 3:20–21 ). Similarly, when Absalom and Adonijah, David’s sons, wish to mount the throne, they begin by organizing feasts ( 2 Sam 13:23–29 ; cf. 15:1 and 1 Kgs 1:5 ). With the help of strong drink, the Aramean king nourishes his alliance with his 32 coalition partners during a campaign against Israel ( 1 Kgs 20:16 ). Later, the prophet restrains the king of Israel from slaughtering the Aramean forces, commanding him instead to prepare...

Herodium

Herodium   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,362 words
Illustration(s):
2

...a natural hill ca. 2,460 ft (750 m) above sea level, first probably accessed only by a simple winding path that may originally have led up to a small fortification built earlier by Herod to lay claim to the hill. This fort was entirely covered by the new circular structure. The cylinder, presently entirely concealed inside the hill, originally stood free for the first 20 years. It comprised seven stories, the lowest two of which had strong barrel vaults serving as storage rooms, while the five above them (three of which were found in situ) had flat ceilings....

Caesarea Philippi

Caesarea Philippi   Reference library

Moshe Hartal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,497 words

...of Damascus. As punishment, Augustus took all the unsettled territories from Zenodorus and placed them under the rule of Herod (23 b.c.e. ; Josephus, Ant. 15.343–348; Strabo, Geogr. 16.2, 20). Zenodorus was left with the northern Golan, the northern Hula Valley, and some part of the Lebanon Bekáa, which were settled by the Itureans. Only after Zenodorus’s death in 20 b.c.e. were these areas also given to Herod (Josephus, Ant. 15.271–272). The surveys and excavations at Bāniyās failed to produce finds that can be dated to the first century b.c.e. ;...

Shechem

Shechem   Reference library

Arye Bornstein

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,896 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the chain of valleys (Jabel Kabir and Jabel Yinon) limestone rocks from the Cenoman–Turonian epoch are exposed in the aquifer and rest on a foundation of marl stone. The area of Tell Balata and the mountains of Gerizim and Ebal are part of a geological syncline with tilted rock layers from the mountains east of the tell and form part of an anticline. As a result there is a flow of groundwater from the entire area toward the valley between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, and consequently there are a large number of springs in the The temple precinct at Tell Balata...

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age

Infancy, Childhood, Adulthood, Old Age, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Jennie Ebeling

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,760 words

...young priest becomes part of the family, like a son to Micah, and thus part of his bet ʾ av . In addition, the bet ʾ av refers not only to the members of this extended family unit but also to the family as an economic unit, including its property, animals, and other holdings. A definition of the Israelite household might be seen in the Tenth Commandment: “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or male or female slave, or ox, or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor” ( Exod 20:17 ). All members of...

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period

Household Religion, Hellenistic and Roman Period   Reference library

Annette Weissenrieder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,094 words
Illustration(s):
1

...telling example of this change is Cicero, whose villa at Tusculum is an example of stage-like sacrificial architecture, of which also numerous wall paintings and statues are evidence. It is difficult to assess the wall paintings in terms of their religious content. Some scholars claim that every individual house pursued a consistent religious concept, whether in the selection of wall paintings and their mythological themes or in the selection of divine figures. Furthermore, a religious content can be seen in painted landscapes as well as an underlying character...

Roman Province of Asia

Roman Province of Asia   Reference library

Alan H. Cadwallader

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,811 words

...urban fabric) brought a slow-developing but inevitable shift in the material manifestation in Asia, reaching a peak in the second century c.e. This is not to claim that a Roman template was either intentional or resultant, nor that every city pursued an identical schema, nor that Roman imperial munificence was the major financial inducement. For example, the baths that were already a recognizable part of Hellenistic culture became under Roman influence much larger establishments, increasingly conjoined to the distinctive Hellenistic civic establishment, the ...

Bethel

Bethel   Reference library

Aaron Greener

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,328 words

...was claimed between the two phases; but this is difficult to ascertain from the published data. Domestic structures were built of excellent masonry and very well laid out (especially for the earlier phase), with courtyards and drains. Evidence of an olive oil industry was also found. Albright and Kelso make much of the final “Israelite destruction” of the Canaanite city and date it to ca. 1240–1235 b.c.e. (in accordance with their belief in the “conquest narrative” as described in the book of Joshua). Finkelstein and Singer-Avitz claimed that this...

Samaria/Sebaste

Samaria/Sebaste   Reference library

Daniel M. Master

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,708 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with the finest masonry work seen in the Iron Age. In this way the archaeological excavations provide substantial clarification to a few words in the biblical text. The biblical text hints that Samaria had a major urban population, perhaps part of a lower city not yet found by archaeologists. In 1 Kings 20 the king of Damascus allows Ahab to set up ḥûṣōt in Damascus just as the Aramean king’s father had set up in Samaria. These ḥûṣōt are usually understood to be marketplaces, and in the Hebrew Bible they appear only in major population centers....

Tell el-Farʿah (N)

Tell el-Farʿah (N)   Reference library

Michaël Jasmin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,821 words
Illustration(s):
1

...During period VIIa, Tell el-Far ʿ ah was not a fortified site, and the settlement was limited to the upper part of the tell, covering a perimeter of about 2.5 acres (1 ha). The previously built Middle-Bronze fortification may have been halfway visible, and the west city gate, though partly destroyed, may have been still in use. Among the different historical problems related to layer VIIa, its dating is a major issue: de Vaux and Chambon claimed that layer VIIa was clearly associated with the Iron I, that is, with the twelfth to eleventh centuries b.c.e....

Ephesus

Ephesus   Reference library

Katherine A. Shaner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,786 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Flavian temple terrace, stood the grave of C. Sextilius Pollio, one of the city’s major benefactors in the first century c.e. These graves and monuments along with the Artemis altar that marked the Triodos and Curetes Street stood at the center of claims to civic and religious identity and authority, claims made by and about Ephesus from imperial families, ruling elites, civic benefactors, and even former slaves. In the first and second centuries c.e. the built environment of the Triodos evolved strikingly, reflecting both the shifting assertions of...

Diet, Bronze and Iron Age

Diet, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Peter Altmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,760 words

...forcing inhabitants to abandon their cities to search for food. A similar situation is portrayed in Judges 6:3–6 , where Israel’s enemies invade after the harvest was sown in order to destroy crops so that Israel would be reduced to servitude through hunger. David’s band claims to have protected Nabal’s flocks from such plundering ( 1 Sam 25:5–8 ). Economic oppression, another cause of food shortages, is documented in Nehemiah 5 : the heavy tax burden, which in Persian period Yehud was paid in kind, led to a situation in which subsistence farmers had...

Literacy, Iron Age

Literacy, Iron Age   Reference library

Alice Mandell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,213 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; for record keeping [ Num 33:2 , Josh 18:8–9 , Judg 8:14 ], including lists and genealogies [ Gen 5:1 ] and royal annals [ 1 Kgs 11:41 , 15:23 ; 2 Kgs 20:20 ]), as well as references to royal scribes ( 2 Sam 8:17 , 20:25 ; 1 Kgs 4:3 ; 2 Kgs 12:10 ; Isa 36:3 ), underscore their growing importance. Moreover, references to writing in Deuteronomy ( 4:13 , 6:9 , 27:3 , 28:58 , 29:20–21 , 30:10 , 31:19 , 31:24 ), in Josiah’s reforms ( 2 Kgs 22–23 ), in prophetic works ( Jer 25:13 , 29:1 , 30:2 , 36:4 , 36:8 ; Isa 8:1 , 29:11–12 , ...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Beth-Shemesh

Beth-Shemesh   Reference library

Dale W. Manor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,871 words

...cleaning. Water was directed into the reservoir by a network of plastered channels from around the northeast part of the tell. Some of the channels, still retaining their plaster, can be traced, with one extending in a northeasterly direction toward the fortification system. At least three channels empty into the reservoir. A large administrative-type building, similar to the “Governor’s Residence” identified by Grant in the western part of the tell, came to light near the northern gate area. It shows two phases of construction and measures some 161.5...

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