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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Bronze

Bronze   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
739 words

...was used by the Sasanians and, later, in the Islamic world. Metalworkers in Kirman refer to it as haftjūsh (meaning “boiled or heated seven times”) and claim that it contains copper, silver, tin, antimony, lead, gold and iron, though analysis shows it to be copper with c. 20% tin. The special quality of vessels made from it lies in the alloy and the hot working they receive. A bronze alloy with c. 20–25% tin and a little lead began to be used for mirrors in the Hellenistic world at the end of the 1st millennium bce ; it became the usual composition for...

Sepulchre, the Holy

Sepulchre, the Holy   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
808 words

...a fourth church built after the Second Crusade, 1147–9 . The enclave was made so large that it covered the most important holy sites in Jerusalem and also a part of the Via Dolorosa, the 10th to the 14th Stations being brought within the enclave of the Holy Sepulchre. This was again rebuilt in 1310 , was partly burnt in 1808 , so that after another rebuilding by 1810 , little remains of any older part but an early bell-tower and the lower walls of the Constantinian rotunda. The enclave contains two main areas, a domed rotunda containing the rock cave of...

Thomas the Apostle, Saint

Thomas the Apostle, Saint   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,161 words

...in His divinity (the first time was Peter, when he said ‘You are the Messiah, the son of the living God’, Matt. 16: 13–20) and also because it gave Jesus the opportunity to stress the overwhelming importance of faith for the disciples themselves, and for those to whom the disciples would be sent. According to Eusebius , Thomas evangelized the Parthians, east of Mesopotamia; another source says that he evangelized India, and he is claimed as the origin of their Christian beliefs by the people of Malabar, and that he was martyred at Mylapore, near Madras....

Cemetery

Cemetery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
946 words

...food to the poor as part of their pious activities. Enc. Qur῾an: “Burial” L. Massignon : “ La Cité des morts au Caire, ” Bull. Inst. Fr. Archéol. Orient. , lvii (1958), pp. 25–80 O. Grabar : “Earliest Islamic Commemorative Structures,” A. Orient . (1966), pp. 1–46 G. Goodwin : “ Gardens of the Dead in Ottoman Times, ” Muqarnas , v (1988), pp. 59–69 T. Allen : “ The Tombs of the ῾Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad, ” Bull. SOAS , xlvi, pt. 3 (1983), pp. 422–31 J. M. Bloom : “ The Mosque of the Qarafa in Cairo, ” Muqarnas , iv (1987), pp. 7–20 T. Leisten : ...

Madonna types

Madonna types   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,994 words

...that the cult image was usually kept there), and was the palladium of the city, carried in processions weekly, and always when danger threatened. It is believed to have been destroyed after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, though it is also claimed that it, or most probably a copy, is in St Mark's, Venice, as part of the loot from the Venetian sack of the city in 1204. As probably the most influential of all the devotional images of the Madonna, it gave rise to variations each portraying a gesture of increasing tenderness. It is also the most popular image...

Kuwait

Kuwait   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,726 words

...numbering about 20% of the total. The main source of revenue in the country is oil, which was discovered in 1938 , and there is a large foreign expatriate workforce. The earliest record of a settlement in Kuwait City dates to c. 1670 . The settlement expanded and in the late 18th century was a prosperous trading center between the Middle East and India. By 1859 it was the most important port in the northern part of the Persian Gulf, with a population estimated at c. 20,000, supported by trade, fishing and pearl-diving. In the early 20th century Kuwait...

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,588 words
Illustration(s):
3

...pl. 3:XIII, fig. 2). Built by the French company Bouygues and inaugurated with great pomp on 22 October 2004 , the building angered some Muslims by incorporating on its walls not only quotations from the Koran, but from the Ruhnama (Book of the Soul), a pseudo-spiritual work claimed to have been written by President Niyazov . 2. Kipchak Mosque, Ashgabat, designed by Kakajan Durdiev, Durli Durdieva and Robert Bellon, commissioned by Saparmurat Niyazov, completed 2004; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom; see Turkmenistan, §II III. Painting...

Oman, Sultanate of

Oman, Sultanate of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,608 words

...control of the tribal interior, started a long period of decline. Oman's isolation and stagnation were reinforced in the mid-20th century, but in 1970 the new ruler, Sultan Qabus ibn Sa῾id , began a process of modernization. The economy is based on oil exports (since 1967 ); agricultural produce such as dates, pomegranates, coconuts and bananas; fish exports and frankincense. This article discusses cultural history from the 19th and 20th centuries. There are over 500 forts, castles, watch-towers and fortified walls throughout Oman, as well as historic...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,461 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is comprised of those art forms that persist or emerge in the context of the evolution of modern ethnic and national identity ( see below). All these arts are claimed as Nigerian, although the interrelationship of forms from one group to another is only rarely obvious. The paradigm that, for example, brings together the antiquities of Ife, the sculptures in wood for shrines and palaces in the 19th and 20th century, and post-Independence developments in, say, textile design or painting, forms the notion of a Yoruba identity. Yet we know this to have evolved, in...

Indonesia, Republic of

Indonesia, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The kingdoms of Kediri ( 929–1222 ), about which almost nothing is known, Singhasari ( 1222–92 ) and Majapahit (1292– c. 1500 ) became powerful. The 14th-century Javanese panegyric Nagarakertagama claims that at that time Hindu Majapahit exerted authority over much of the Indonesian archipelago and even parts of mainland Southeast Asia. Although such claims are almost certainly exaggerated, it is certain that Bali was conquered by Majapahit between 1331 and 1351 . As a result of this conquest, Bali developed its own highly idiosyncratic form of Hinduism...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( 1900–84 ) and others were commissioned by the Ministry of the Interior and the Jerusalem Municipality to design the Old City and environs as part of a special area plan. The new master plan for Greater Jerusalem ( 1964–8 ) has since provided guidelines for the city’s development. Following the Six Day War in 1967 , Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and large-scale development took place, doubling the population within 20 years. New technology was developed to replace the traditional methods of cutting stone, now used as a facing material. A special commission...

Umayyad

Umayyad   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,344 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and coinage of the empire ( 692–7 ) finalized this break with the past. The Umayyad rulers, of whom the three strongest politically were Mu῾awiya , ῾Abd al-Malik ( r. 685–705 ; see §1 below) and Hisham ( r. 724–43 ), took the title khalīfat allāh (“God's deputy”), thereby claiming religious as well as political authority. Yet their reign was punctuated by religious revolts (notably in 680 and a civil war lasting intermittently from 683 to 692 ), while their attempts to hold the balance between conflicting tribal factions (especially Quda῾a vs. Qays) made...

Ethnography

Ethnography   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,164 words

...the political–military élite of the countries they occupied, but for a far longer period. Arab hegemony had lasted for no more than a century and a half; the Turks created the ruling dynasties of the region and dominated its armies into the 20th century. In spite of their material power, however, they were slow to claim cultural leadership over the lands they ruled. Only in the late 15th century did Turkish become a common literary tongue even in Anatolia or Transoxiana, where Turks were a clear majority of the Muslim population. Until then, most Turkish...

North America

North America   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,766 words

...images of the Virgin Mary, Catholic saints, alcenas (cupboards) that served as domestic altars, and offrendas (offerings), tables dedicated to commemoration on the Day of the Dead. In the 20th century, art in American churches began to reach back to the medieval for aesthetic and devotional inspiration, while the art world outside religious institutions claimed the independence of art from cultural determination in a new wave of modernism. With the Park Avenue Armory Show of 1913 , a course was set in which Impressionism and Abstraction came to...

History

History   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,377 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and nomadic pastoralists, whether Arab or Turkmen, remained marginal elements in the political system. This was due in part to the military power of the sultan’s mamluk regiments, in part to the deep-rooted bureaucratic traditions of the Nile Valley. Like its distant Saljuq ancestor, the Mamluk Empire insisted on its Islamic identity. The Mamluks made traditionalist Sunnism the only legitimate interpretation of the faith, and they claimed that their chief aim was to defend the sharī῾a . In this light, they honored the ulema, but allowed them little autonomy...

Ottoman

Ottoman   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,716 words
Illustration(s):
3

...(2002), pp. 2–13 F. Mahmud II ( b. 20 July 1785 ; r. 1808–39 ; d. 1 July 1839 ). Son of Abdülhamid I ( r. 1774–89 ) and Nakşidil Sultan. His mother was born Aimée Dubucq de Rivery of French–Créole parentage, who was captured by pirates and sold to the Ottoman imperial harem, where she became Valide Sultan (Queen Mother). He succeeded his cousin Selim III ( r. 1789–1807 ) and his brother Mustafa IV ( r. 1807–8 ). Mahmud is chiefly known for breaking the power of the janissaries, whose reactionary views were in part responsible for the Ottoman military...

Koran

Koran   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,105 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of an oral tradition, certain passages were normally recited in slightly different ways according to the specialist followed and regional school adhered to. Once the canonical text had been established, some variations—“readings” transmitted by a limited number of schools claiming some of the leading specialists in the Koran—continued to be allowed. II. Content . As a collection of revelations, the Koran is not a narrative of passages in which the religious message is developed but a predication in which narrative plays a secondary role. The revelations...

Sudan, Democratic Republic of the

Sudan, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,890 words

...stylized portraits representing Sudan’s different ethnic groups. The work of an Italian artist, it was erected in front of the presidential palace as a symbol of unity. Although Sudan’s antique sculptural remains have had little impact on the country’s modern art, it has been claimed that the work of ceramicist Mohammed Ahmed Abdulla ( b. 1933 ) has architectural qualities, drawn from traditional domes and arches, as well as from calabash and basketry forms (Kennedy, 1992 ). One of the few Sudanese artists to work in three dimensions, Abdulla studied at the...

Central Asia

Central Asia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
48,691 words
Illustration(s):
10

...in the upper Zarafshan Valley were assembled from separately carved details, a technique that flourished in later times. Other pieces from the eastern part of the region are a column in the mausoleum of Abu῾l-Qasim Gurgani in the village of Urmetan and a superb 12th-century complex in the village of Chorku near Isfara. The first precisely dated pieces are a column ( 1316 ) from the mosque at Khiva and a column (20 Safar 753/7 April 1352 ; Tashkent, Aybek Mus. Hist. Uzbekistan) from Yasi (now Turkestan). A cenotaph (Bukhara, Hist. Mus.) from the tomb of Sayf...

Timurid

Timurid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,716 words
Illustration(s):
2

...city, of which only the tile-clad minarets at its four corners survived into the 20th century. The tile mosaic in black, light and dark blue, white, buff, yellow and an unusual light green is even more elaborate than that on the neighboring complex of Gawharshad. He greatly enlarged the shrine of ῾Ali ibn Abi Talib at Mazar-i Sharif ( 1480–81 ), probably to curry the favor of Shi῾ites, and ordered a spacious congregational mosque ( 1482–5 ) for Ziyaratgah, a small village 20 km south of Herat. In his Apologia he clearly articulated how the patronage of...

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