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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Robinson, Norman Hamilton Galloway

Robinson, Norman Hamilton Galloway (1912–78)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
686 words

...in ‘ethico-evangelical theology’, in which he will weigh the truth and errors of theological liberalism and the strengths and weaknesses of Barthianism. His guiding principle is that ‘The claim of Christ is a moral claim … which renews the whole moral world with all its claims and counter-claims, and rebuilds it around Himself as centre’ ( Christ and Conscience , p. 20). He discusses moral responsibility with reference to H. D. Lewis ; and the Christian interpretation of morality with reference to Emil Brunner . He finds Barth's theology insufficiently...

happiness

happiness   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
772 words

...play in ethics . How is the claim that happiness is the main goal of human life to be understood? If it is understood as a descriptive psychological claim, then is it to be taken as a claim about pursuing one's own happiness (a version of psychological hedonism ) or a claim about pursuing the happiness of others (a claim about the role of benevolence in human motivation )? Moreover, even if some sort of psychological claim can be advanced about the role of happiness in our actual decision-making, why should the ethical claim that we should pursue...

Mothersill, Mary

Mothersill, Mary (1923–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,573 words

...ethics will not exhaust the use to which these words can be put. In Mothersill’s aesthetics, a central theme is the resolution of a tension brought about by two vastly different claims. The first claim is that there are no principles or laws of taste that can be used to justify inferential judgments about whether works of art are beautiful. The second is that despite the first claim, legitimate judgments of works of art are possible. Criticism of the arts is both justified and fruitful, as evidenced both by the copious amount of art criticism that exists, as...

Cooke, Thomas

Cooke, Thomas (1703–56)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
518 words

...Bad Critics and bad Poets, and indeed bad Writers of any Kind, are public Nuisances … A good Poet and good Critic are public Benefits; and, whenever I perform the part of either, I think myself happy in having approved myself a good Citizen. Cooke was also interested in philosophical theology, and, in a publication of 1742 , he argued convincingly for free enquiry into religious claims, arguing that the acquisition of truth was natural to mankind and could not be suppressed by religious edicts. Elsewhere in the same work, he makes some minor criticism...

Grice, Geoffrey Russell

Grice, Geoffrey Russell (1926)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
640 words

...considered all the forms the project might take. Grice claims that there are indeed two distinct grounds of moral judgement: supporting, on the one hand, judgements of what he terms ‘basic obligation’ and, on the other hand, terms of ‘ultra obligation’. Much of his book is devoted to elaborating this distinction and to considering its implications. Basic obligations comprise what might be termed, according to Grice, the ‘legalistic’ part of morality, whereas ultra obligations constitute its ‘ethical’ part ( The Grounds of Moral Judgement (1967, p.36) . Basic...

Relativism

Relativism   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
995 words

...‘paradigms’ as part and parcel of ‘the myth of the framework’: the relativistic claim that we are trapped in incommensurable modes of construing the world. Although Kuhn never accepted the label ‘relativist’, it was happily adopted by Popper 's student Paul Feyerabend who for several decades became the most visible self-professed relativist. The Kuhn-Popper controversy was contemporaneous with the largely British dispute over relativism and rationality in the philosophy of the social sciences . The latter argument was triggered in large part by Peter...

Russell, Leonard James

Russell, Leonard James (1884–1971)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,461 words

...of Causality’ (cf. the review of Bertrand Russell's Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits , p. 20). There Russell claims that logical empiricists can avoid the charge that their doctrine that ‘any statements which can neither be rendered probable nor unlikely by empirical evidence, and which are not purely analytic, are meaningless’ is itself meaningless because it ‘does not conform to any of its own requirements’. Logical empiricists, counters Russell, can claim that their position can be treated as a mode of procedure – a proposal – and not as an...

Blagden, Charles

Blagden, Charles (c.1748–1820)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
607 words

...best method of assessing the excise on spirituous liquors ( 1790 ). He also wrote on tides, meteors and vision. Blagden was involved in the ‘water controversy’ about the priority of the discovery of the composition of water, which was claimed by Cavendish , James Watt and Lavoisier . He appears to have been responsible for part of the confusion owing to his position as assistant to Cavendish and friend to Lavoisier. The confusion he engendered was probably the result of his enthusiasm for the former's work and some careless talk to the latter, rather than...

Butler, Ronald Joseph

Butler, Ronald Joseph (1929–2000)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
635 words

...ideas, thinking and feeling, the passions and understanding. Butler's interest in classical Greek philosophy is displayed in his paper ‘Aristotle's Sea-Fight and Three Valued Logic ’. He examines ‘some ontological implications of the law of excluded middle’ because of modern ‘claims that “many-valued logics” invalidate that law’ ( ‘Aristotle's Sea-Fight’, p. 264 ). In particular, Butler is concerned with the application of that law to ‘propositions about future contingent events’, such as ‘there will be a sea fight tomorrow’. Modern critics of Aristotle's...

Doig, David

Doig, David (1719–1800)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
625 words

...he thought had been first promulgated by the Greek atomists that the early ages of humankind were marked by ‘the universal empire of the savage state’, and instead urged that from the very beginning at least a part of humankind had cultivated religion, learning and politeness ( Two Letters , pp. 4–5). For Doig, civilization was not (as Kames claimed) the product of human progress; rather, it was an original gift of God which had passed down through the course of human history. Hence the Two Letters articulates a Christian conception of history radically at...

Brightman, Edgar Sheffield

Brightman, Edgar Sheffield (1884–1953)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,679 words

...as a part of God’s experience. Brightman reasons that “any part of God’s experience (such as Nature) must be incomplete” (1958, p. 248). Consequently, it makes no sense to equate nature with absolutely everything. “Nature is one area of interaction, cooperation, and communication with God.” (1958, p. 251) Defining nature as the world of sense objects excludes all nonphysical aspects of reality from nature. Brightman admits that our bodies are physical and a part of nature, but maintains that our consciousness, our ideas, values, and beliefs are not part of...

aesthetics (Twentieth Century)

aesthetics (Twentieth Century)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
5,952 words

...of Art ( 1938 ). The bold ideas and argumentation and the vigorous prose make this a joy to read. Despite that, it has had a limited influence. Part of the reason for this might be Collingwood's idiosyncrasy: he fitted neither into the Oxford of his day, nor into the new move in philosophy being made by the likes of A. J. Ayer . Thus, in reading him, it is easy to be mistaken in what he is claiming. The result has been that he has not, on the whole, been served well by his commentators – a further reason for his neglect. I shall focus on three...

Winch, Peter Guy

Winch, Peter Guy (1926–97)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,060 words

...rejected the claim that there were only scientific criteria of intelligibility and reality. To replace the view that science determines reality and intelligibility, Winch adopts an account derived from Wittgenstein. Language is not invented. It developed as we developed (and will continue in that way), and fits the capacities we acquire in adjusting ourselves to the situations in which we find ourselves. For example, as we evolved as creatures making certain sorts of visual sortings, so the colour language evolved. As error and correction are part of our...

Butchvarov, Panayot Krustev

Butchvarov, Panayot Krustev (1933–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
753 words

...other things, this helps us understand G. E. Moore’s claim that goodness is a nonnatural property. For Moore, the natural properties of a thing – such as yellow – are parts of it and possibly exist apart from it. One of Butchvarov’s points is that, the more generic a property, the less sense it makes to think of it as a Moorean natural property. In The Concept of Knowledge (1970), Butchvarov defends the view that knowledge is the absolute unthinkability of mistake. The view is grounded in the claim that the beliefs constituting primary knowledge may not...

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Storrow

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Storrow (1823–1911)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
923 words

...brothers in the cause of liberty. (1852, pp. 18–20) BIBLIOGRAPHY Things New And Old: An Installation Sermon (Worcester, Mass., 1852). Out-door Papers (Boston, 1863). Common Sense about Women (Boston, 1882). Margaret Fuller Ossoli (Boston, 1884). Concerning All of Us (New York, 1892). Cheerful Yesterdays (Boston, 1898). Contemporaries (Boston, 1899). Women and the Alphabet: A Series of Essays (Boston, 1900). John Greenleaf Whittier (New York, 1902). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Boston, 1902). Part of a Man’s Life (Boston, 1905). Carlyle’s Laugh and...

Penelhum, Terence Michael

Penelhum, Terence Michael (1929)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,656 words

...sense of the term in ‘necessary being’. So the cosmological argument fails. Defenders of the argument point out that the idea that all necessity depends on our own speech habits is itself a philosophical view that is no part of ordinary language or common sense, and so cannot be appealed to by those who accept only commonsensical claims. Penelhum distinguishes between various relations that might hold between theism and atheism : it might be unreasonable to accept theism and reasonable to accept atheism; it might be unreasonable to hold either position....

Digby, Kenelm

Digby, Kenelm (1603–65)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,733 words

...own historical reputation resulted in large part from his collections of culinary and medicinal recipes, and especially from his influential description and advocacy of the so-called ‘powder of sympathy’. More recently, however, he has been acclaimed as an important presenter in English of the newly fashionable mechanical philosophy; and there is no doubt that his diverse writings well exemplify some of the complexities of seventeenth-century intellectual developments. Digby's steward, George Hartman, claimed, after his master's death, to have retrieved...

Skyrms, Brian

Skyrms, Brian (1938–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
948 words

...” Journal of Philosophy 79 (1982): 695–711. “ Dynamic Coherence and Probability Kinematics, ” Philosophy of Science 54 (1987): 1–20. “ Carnapian Inductive Logic for Markov Chains, ” Erkenntnis 35 (1991): 439–60. Ed. with Wolfgang Spohn and Bas van Fraassen , Existence and Explanation: Essays Presented in Honor of Karel Lambert (Dordrecht, 1991). “ Sex and Justice, ” Journal of Philosophy 91 (1994): 305–20. “ The Structure of Radical Probabilism, ” Erkenntnis 45 (1997): 285–97. “ Subjunctive Conditionals and Revealed Preference ” Philosophy...

Brokmeyer, Henry Conrad

Brokmeyer, Henry Conrad (1826–1906)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,175 words

...test of every claim was its standing in Hegel’s Logic . Whereas self-activity is the foundational idea making the movement of the categories possible in the Logic , the categories of the logic itself are presupposed in all mental activity. It is a shame, Brokmeyer claimed, that Hegel did not stylize this all-important study for moderns who ride trains and live in a hustle and bustle world. On the basis of self-activity and the movement within the Logic , Brokmeyer criticized Bronson Alcott and New England transcendentalism. He claimed that Alcott ...

Hacking, Ian MacDougall

Hacking, Ian MacDougall (1936–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,327 words

...UK, 2001). “ How ‘Natural’ Are ‘Kinds’ of Sexual Orientation? ” Law and Philosophy 21 (2002): 95–107. Further Reading Bio 20thC Phils, Oxford Comp Phil Holcomb, Harmon R., III. “ Hacking’s Experimental Argument for Realism, ” Journal of Critical Analysis 9 (1988): 1–12. Kusch, Martin . “ Metaphysical deja vu: Hacking and Latour on Science Studies and Metaphysics, ” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2002): 639–47. Reiner, Richard , and Robert Pierson , “ Hacking’s Experimental Realism: An Untenable Middle Ground, ” ...

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