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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Henry IV Part 1

Henry IV Part 1   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,574 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...performance in around 1623 , and Part 1 was performed at court in 1625 (as The First Part of Sir John Falstaff ) and in 1638 (as Oldcastle , unless this was the collaborative Sir John Oldcastle written in 1600 to counter Shakespeare’s depiction of the knight, though this seems less likely). In the public theatres, it is generally assumed that Richard Burbage created the role of the Prince, but the identity of the original Sir John is uncertain: Malone claimed to have seen a document which assigned the part to Heminges . The role, however, was...

King John

King John   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,371 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...war on King John in the name of the French King Philip, who supports John’s young nephew Arthur’s claim to the throne: John promises to defend his title in a military campaign in France, though his mother Queen Eleanor privately admits to John that his deceased elder brother’s son has the better right to the crown. The King is then asked to judge a dispute between one Philip (the Bastard) and his brother Robert Falconbridge: despite being the junior, Robert claims the lands of their father Sir Robert Falconbridge on the grounds that Philip is in fact the...

Cymbeline, King of Britain

Cymbeline, King of Britain   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,998 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...his letter to her will provide. This letter, which Pisanio gives Innogen, claims Posthumus is waiting for her at Milford Haven in Wales, towards which she is impatient to flee. 3.3 Outside their Welsh cave, Belarius warns his untravelled sons Polydore and Cadwal against the vices of court life: when they have gone hunting, he confides to the audience that though brought up to think he is their father they are really Guiderius and Arviragus, Cymbeline’s sons, whom he stole 20 years earlier to avenge his unjust banishment. 3.4 Near Milford, Pisanio is...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the Governor of Mytilene, apparently a regular client despite a subsequent claim that he is there solely to gather evidence against the Bawd, visits the brothel and is left with Marina, who persuades him she is genuinely a virgin and no prostitute: he leaves promising to help. The Bawd, outraged by Marina’s behaviour, orders Boult to deflower her, but she persuades him she will be more profitably employed in respectable activities such as sewing, weaving, and dancing. 20 Gower narrates Marina’s establishment as a singer and embroiderer, and the arrival...

Henry IV Part 2

Henry IV Part 2   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,727 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...1853 and at intervals thereafter. In the 20th century Laurence Olivier ’s performance as Shallow alongside Ralph Richardson ’s poignant but impish Falstaff, at the New Theatre in 1945 , entered the realms of legend. On the screen: See Henry iv Part 1 . Michael Dobson Recent major editions Recent major editions Giorgio Melchiori (New Cambridge, 1989); A. R. Humphreys (Arden 2nd series, 1966); René Weis (Oxford, 1998) Some representative criticism See the reading list appended to the entry on Henry IV Part 1...

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, Anthony Davies, and Will Sharpe

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,203 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...and Brutus part, resolved to kill themselves if defeated. 5.2–3 Brutus’ forces assault those of Octavius, but leave Cassius’ army at the mercy of Antony: Cassius sends Titinius to report from his camp. Seeing Titinius surrounded by cavalry, Cassius’ servant Pindarus reports that all is lost, and Cassius has himself killed by him. The cavalry, however, were those of Brutus’ army: finding Cassius’ body, Titinius kills himself. Brutus, young Cato, and others find their bodies, but rally for another assault. 5.4 Young Cato is killed: Lucillius, claiming to be...

Coriolanus

Coriolanus   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,020 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...the 19th century and the first part of the 20th much criticism of the play was similarly dedicated to showing how and why it was inferior to the earlier tragedies, with A. C. Bradley commenting on the critical distance Shakespeare maintains between audience and characters by ironic humour and Harley Granville-Barker praising the play’s supreme, focused craftsmanship at the expense of its vitality. Frank Harris pioneered one recurrent strain in 20th-century criticism in The Women in Shakespeare ( 1911 ) when he claimed that the intense mother–son bond...

The Merchant of Venice

The Merchant of Venice   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,171 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...his humanity had led him to write a vindication of the Jews. The argument between those who insist that Shakespeare was exposing his Christians’ hypocrisy rather than attacking Judaism, and those who claim that all Elizabethans were automatically anti-Semitic and would have found Shylock’s torments hilarious, continues to this day, though since the early 20th century accounts of Shylock’s significance (such as that offered by Auden in 1948 ) have been more inclined to see him in thematic relation to the play’s other outsider, Antonio. Antonio’s erotically...

The Two Gentlemen of Verona

The Two Gentlemen of Verona   Reference library

Michael Dobson, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,682 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...on the relative claims of friendship, love, and gratitude, or in terms of the literary conventions of courtly romance. It is noticeable that the play has been consistently more highly regarded on the Continent than in Britain, with G. G. Gervinus among its few 19th-century advocates (drawing attention, in Shakespeare , 1849–50 , to its sophisticated use of parallelism, a subject taken up a century later in an important essay by Harold F. Brooks ). H. B. Charlton , in his influential account of Shakespearian comedy ( 1938 ), claimed that the play was an...

Sonnets

Sonnets   Reference library

Michael Dobson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,480 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...doubts as to the friend’s constancy, and 117–20 apologize for a lapse in the poet’s own fidelity. Sonnet 126, ‘O thou my lovely boy’—unusually, a poem in six rhymed couplets rather than a sonnet proper—marks a turning point: the last poem addressed to the young man, it offers a final warning to him of his inescapable mortality. The next sonnets, 127–52, are known as the ‘Dark Lady’ group, addressed to or concerned with an unfashionably dark-haired, dark-eyed, and dark-complexioned mistress. For the most part, these poems reproach her: she is a tyrant,...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...mid-20s, and the extensive period during which courtship loomed large was reason enough for young women to want to read or consult fortune-tellers about the subject of marriage, and to be reassured that they could have recourse to supernatural help in seeing, or even finding, their future partner. Corinthian Kate and Joanna Southcott might seem to have had little in common. However, the Devonshire prophetess was also much preoccupied with love: she exercised a holy courtship with Christ, refracted her often erotic language through Scripture, and claimed her...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...an equalization of property, not just an equalization of political rights. Although this was partly a rhetorical device, the example of France after 1789 added a powerful element of anxiety to such claims. From the early summer of 1792 , when the first Royal Proclamation Against Seditious Writings was issued and prosecution against Paine's Rights of Man: Part the Second was inaugurated, the establishment suffered recurrent bouts of anxiety about the prospect of a political and social revolution. These anxieties were not groundless, nor should we dismiss...

Richard Duke of York

Richard Duke of York   Reference library

Randall Martin, Will Sharpe, and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,705 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...simply as a she-wolf. But German Romantic critics situated the play in the wider context of Shakespeare’s histories as part of a national epic. E. M. W. Tillyard ’s influential Shakespeare’s History Plays ( 1944 ) adopted this interpretation but emphasized the providential triumph of the Tudors, foreshadowed by Henry’s prophecy over Richmond in 4.7. But Tillyard and others depressed critical interest in Richard Duke of York by claiming that Shakespeare was uninspired when writing it. The modern stage has dispelled this view, while revisionist critics have...

Richard III

Richard III   Reference library

Randall Martin and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,559 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...mourning over the coffin of her father-in-law Henry VI, who was killed by Richard. Richard woos her, saying he killed Henry and her husband, Prince Edward, for the sake of her beauty, and that she must now charitably believe his motives were sincere. At first Anne scorns his claims, but ultimately, though still reluctantly, she yields. 1.3 Queen Elizabeth and her sons Dorset and Grey worry about Edward IV’s illness and the prospect of Gloucester becoming protector over Prince Edward. Gloucester questions her family’s loyalty to the Yorkists. Queen Margaret...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for the emergence of the notion that what a nation collects or accumulates is as much a part of its cultural capital as what it produces artistically. In this formula the cabinets of curiosities and art treasures formed by private individuals could be and were included in a contemporary definition of nationhood. Events such as the dispersal of the Walpole collection at Houghton Hall and the various schemes proposed for the establishment of a National Gallery are part of a halting articulation of what might now be termed a sense of national ‘cultural...

Antony and Cleopatra

Antony and Cleopatra   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,330 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...in the Stationers’ Register on 20 May 1608 . Text: Despite this entry, the play was not printed until the publication of the First Folio in 1623 , which provides the only authoritative text. It seems to have been printed from a good transcript of Shakespeare’s own foul papers , though not a Promptbook : although the spelling suggests the work of a scribe, some of the text’s minor errors (such as mistaken speech prefixes) are characteristically authorial, and others (such as entry directions for characters who play no part in the subsequent action) would...

Henry V

Henry V   Reference library

Michael Dobson and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,163 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...against potential Scottish invasion. The French ambassador is admitted with a message from the Dauphin, who has heard of Harry’s plans to claim French territory and, as a comment on his youth and alleged frivolity, has sent a barrel of tennis balls as a present. The King dismisses the ambassadors after promising that he will soon avenge this mockery in full, and sets the preparations for his campaign in motion. 2.0 The Chorus describes the country’s eager preparations for the war, but also outlines a French-funded conspiracy to assassinate the King at...

Natural Philosophy (Science)

Natural Philosophy (Science)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,186 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...specialized disciplines. Increasingly, as each of these claimed autonomy from other scientific fields, they also rejected any dependence on non-scientific grounds of legitimation. In the eighteenth century, natural philosophy had successfully supplied an embracing rationale; by the 1830s, the various sciences were beginning to speak for themselves. Crosland, M. , ‘ The Image of Science as a Threat: Burke versus Priestley and the “Philosophic Revolution ”’, British Journal for the History of Science , 20 (1987), 287–318; Cunningham, A. , & Jardine, N. ,...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...In Britain the outcome of the war was interpreted as evidence of God's plan. The excitement increased rather than diminished as the country claimed the title of ‘saviour of Europe’, and as the expansion of its territories and power around the globe accelerated after 1810 . The world position Britain assumed as a result of the Napoleonic wars renewed the vision of a warless world, with commerce having an important part in its making. Such views can seem to indicate a society that was complacent about its institutions, confidently insular against foreign...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...immigration to the towns and overseas also produced the pauperization and underemployment described, but not fully understood, by commentators of the time. Genuine depopulation, in the sense of a fall in the absolute numbers of the rural population was, in spite of Cobbett's claims, only to be found in a few specialized cases. *Enclosure , as we now know, did not necessarily lead to a reduction in the labour force required, whatever other effects it may have entailed. A decline of the rural population and of the agricultural labour force was certainly...

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