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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

Generative Morphology

Generative Morphology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
868 words

...20: Essays in honor of Sylvain Bromberger , edited by Ken Hale and Samuel Jay Keyser , pp. 111–176. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Jackendoff, Ray . 1975. Morphological and semantic regularities in the lexicon . Language 51.639–671. Jackendoff, Ray . 1997. The architecture of the language faculty . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Lees, Robert B. 1960. The grammar of English nominalizations . (Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, publication 12; International Journal of American Linguistics , 26:3, part 2.)...

Central Maluku Languages

Central Maluku Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,879 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Snabi Watubela, Kasiui, Kesui, Kasui, Wesi, Esiriun, Matabello. 4,000 speakers in eastern central Maluku, Watubela Islands, north of Kur Island. Dialects are Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Many claim to use Geser-Gorom as second language. Wemale, North: 4,930 speakers in Maluku spread along the northern coast of Taniwel district, east of Taniwel, and in the westernmost part of eastern Seram district, 24 villages. Dialects are Horale, Kasieh, Uwenpantai. Kawe may be a dialect. Language used in church. Vigorous language use. Wemale, South: also called Tala,...

Literacy

Literacy   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,131 words

...codes. From 165 bce until the first decade of the 20th century CE, the Chinese examination system for civil servants tested their knowledge of Confucianism. Confirmation that bureaucrats knew the classics helped to ensure their commitment to social order: good government was believed to come from character improved by knowledge of sacred writings. Printing and publishing flourished in medieval China, spreading Buddhist and Taoist scriptures and Confucian canonical writings. But in the first part of the 20th century, reformers altered this pattern of...

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
23,263 words

...a claim about the subject matter of syntax, so the crucial issue is whether theories of the syntactic or structural properties of sentences are independent of a theory of competence. At first glance, the answer might appear to be “No,” because there are clear cases where the syntactic features of an utterance are fully determined by facts about how that utterance was produced. Take the case of structural ambiguity. In tokens of the sentence I hate boring people , the word boring can function either as part of a constituent with people , or as part of...

Evolution and Language

Evolution and Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,743 words

...linguistic effects. 1.2. Comparative and typological linguistics The main contribution of comparative linguistic research has been to broaden the range of recognized structural possibilities in language. Strong claims for the autonomy of language structure and its control over cognition, advanced by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf earlier in the 20th century, have not been well supported, however. Intensive analysis of diverse types of languages continues to challenge attempts to posit categorically universal features at any but the most abstract levels of...

Phonology

Phonology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,124 words

...requirement follows from the psychological claims made: a generative phonology is a model of the mental representation by adult native speakers of the sound structure of a language. Phonological theory provides a limited set of possible models, among which a child must choose when learning a language. The theory of phonological processes in SPE is a universal theory of how to express rules in terms of a metalanguage. The metalanguage (usually called the “notational system” or “abbreviatory conventions”) makes claims about what sorts of phonological rules are...

Niger-Congo Languages

Niger-Congo Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,009 words
Illustration(s):
7

...languages score higher with languages outside Atlantic; for example, according to Wilson (in Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989 :92), Papel in North Atlantic scores higher with Common Bantu and Dagbani (Gur) than with Bijogo or any South Atlantic language. Segerer 2001 claims that Bijogo scores 20–40% with Common Bantu and shows regular sound correspondences. Atlantic relationship appears more clearly from grammatical evidence in the nominal and verbal systems; if Atlantic cannot stand as a family, the grammatical reconstructions may belong to a higher level of...

African American Vernacular English (AAVE)

African American Vernacular English (AAVE)   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,233 words

...and creolization? (ii) Has AAVE been diverging from white American vernaculars (and Standard English) in the 20th century, and is divergence rather than convergence its current trajectory? Although theoretically independent of (i), some linguists take the position that AAVE was primarily influenced by and convergent with white English vernaculars from the 17th century to the mid-19th, and that the most distinctive AAVE features emerged only in the 20th century, as blacks moved out of the South and faced sharp segregation in urban ghettoes. Although there is no...

Lolo-Burmese Languages

Lolo-Burmese Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,912 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Yi, but communication is claimed to be possible with all locations. High bilingualism in Chinese is reported among young people. Zaiwa: also called Tsaiwa, Atsi, Atzi, Aji, Atshi, Aci, Azi, Atsi-Maru, Szi, Xiaoshanhua. 110,000 speakers in China and Myanmar. In China: 80,000 speakers in Yunnan Province, Luxi, Ruili, Longchuan, Yingjiang, Bangwa districts in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture. Dialects are Zaiwa, Langwa, Polo. Closely related to Maru, Lashi, and Pela. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. 25% (20,000) are monolingual, mainly...

Linguistics and Literature

Linguistics and Literature   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
28,004 words

...since. The 20th century has been characterized by an unusual self-consciousness about the process of choice, and in literature written during the earlier part of the century this is evident both in extensions of previous trends and in reactions against them. It is a 20th-century notion that language determines what can be written. Previously, writers generally believed that language was the servant of art, and that if it proved inadequate, there were strategies of augmentation—lexical, grammatical, figurative—that could correct the deficiency. Much 20th-century...

Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Communication   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,002 words

...paralanguage, and kinesics have their origin. It is the learned behavior that exemplifies cultural varieties of language and nonverbal behavior. During the latter half of the 20th century, research in nonverbal means of communication proliferated with the advance of media that made scientific observations possible. “Body language” became a popular concept, along with outlandish claims about its use. Attributing meaning to gestures and vocalizations is a difficult process and should not be done carelessly. A more realistic and worthy goal is to cultivate...

Morphology

Morphology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,741 words

...In The view from building 20 , edited by Kenneth Hale and S. J. Keyser , pp. 111–176. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Hayes, Bruce . 1990. Precompiled phrasal phonology. In The phonology-syntax connection , edited by Sharon Inkelas and Draga Zec , pp. 85–108. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lees, Robert B. 1960. The grammar of English nominalizations . (Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics, publication 12; International Journal of American Linguistics , 26:3, part 2.) Bloomington: Indiana...

Tone

Tone   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,843 words
Illustration(s):
6

...may also have a M[id] tone, defining a third tone height, e.g. Yoruba dí ‘to block’, dï ‘to become’, dì ‘to tie’; and also a fourth lower-mid ('M) tone, as in Chatino k' ṹ ‘I eat’, k' ũ̄ ‘I grind’, k'ũ ũ̍ ‘sweet potato’, k' ũ̀ ‘dove’. The few languages that have been claimed to have five contrastive tone heights may be subject to reanalysis. Contour tones , which involve a change of pitch on the same vowel or other T[one-]B[earing] U[nit], occur in many languages, especially in East Asia. For example, of the four contrasting tones of Standard...

Arawakan Languages

Arawakan Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,122 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Ignaciano used in town meetings unless outsiders present. Many use Ignaciano in daily life. Ignaciano a required subject in the lower school grades, one session per week. Speakers are encouraged to maintain ethnicity by the popularity of their many church-related pageants, to claim their lands according to timber rights, and various other improvements. Iñapari: also called Inamari. 4 speakers remain in Peru. Formerly spoken on Piedras River, at the mouth of Sabaluyo, near Puerto Maldonado. Extinct in Bolivia. All are reported to be bilingual in Spanish. No...

Linguistic Relativity

Linguistic Relativity   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...out, is a “construction” which one formulates in part through attention to “the syntactic patterns of the language spoken by the people who have that view.” The types of discourse favored by ethnic groups or social classes may offer clues to their world views. Oratory, prayer, witty repartee, or quiet conversation imply different views of human relationships and of the self; each community has its own repertoire of speech events, organized and valued in distinctive ways. Finally, literacy has been claimed to affect or even to transform world view. Jack...

Biu-Mandara Languages

Biu-Mandara Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,909 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Plain Bura). Kofa may be a related language. Buwal: also called Ma Buwal, Bual, Gadala. 5,000 speakers in Cameroon. In and around Gadala, Mokolo subdivision, Mayo-Tsanaga division, Far North Province. May be intelligible with Gavar. Speakers closer to Mofu or Gavar regions claim to understand those languages. Fulfulde and French bilingualism is limited. Buwal is used in church. Cibak: also called Chibuk, Chibok, Chibbak, Chibbuk, Kyibaku, Kibbaku, Kikuk. 100,000 speakers in Nigeria, state of Borno, Damboa LGA. Cineni: 3,000 speakers in Nigeria, state of...

Gur Languages

Gur Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,515 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Degha, Mo, Mmfo, Aculo, Janela, Buru. 21,000 speakers in Ghana and Ivory Coast. In Ghana: 20,000 speakers in the west central area, west of Volta Lake. Dialects are Longoro, Mangum, Boe. Twi (Akan) is widely spoken as second language. English is also used. In Ivory Coast: 1,100 speakers. Delo: also called Ntrubo, Ntribu, Ntribou. 11,400 speakers in Ghana and Togo. In Ghana: 6,000 speakers at the east central border with Togo. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 20 miles south of Nkwanta. It has been reclassified from Kwa to Gur family. Bilingualism in Twi,...

Pidgins and Creoles

Pidgins and Creoles   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
10,773 words
Illustration(s):
2

...basilect. Creole Arabic, Sudanese: also called Juba Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic, Pidgin Arabic. 20,000 speakers in Sudan. Difficult intelligibility with Nubi, Sudanese Arabic, or Modern Standard Arabic. Also used as the major language of communication among speakers of different languages in Equatoria, south of Wau and Malakal. Used in many church services as first or second language in Juba and a few other towns. Many schoolteachers use it at least part of the time. Most people in towns speak at least two languages, and it is common for them to speak...

Neurolinguistics

Neurolinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
5,007 words
Illustration(s):
4

...skills, whereas irregular word formation processes, such as the formation of the past tense of irregular English verbs like ran or brought , is carried out in the same part of the cortex in which simple, non-derived words like book or tiger are represented (Pinker 1999 ). Many of these possible examples of localization are either incompatible with the Geschwind model (such as the claim by Damasio et al. 1996 that word forms are accessed in the inferior temporal lobe), or are not treated by that model (as in the model of word formation described...

Language Planning

Language Planning   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
4,869 words

...one language in relation to others, from corpus planning , where the shape of a language is changed by proposing new technical terms, spelling reforms, a new script, or even changes to morphology (e.g. gender endings). A similar framework was introduced by Neustupný 1978 , who claimed that some societies concentrate on policy, others on cultivation. The two types of planning may take place together or separately. Status planning is generally aimed at developing a marker of national identity ( nationism , cf. Fishman 1968 ); spreading a language, nationally or...

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