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Part 20 claim

Subject: Law

A claim other than a claim by the claimant against the defendant. It includes (1) a counterclaim by the defendant against the claimant; (2) a counterclaim by the defendant against a third ...

ornament

ornament  

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Overview Page
Decorative devices, not essential to structure, but often necessary to emphasize or diminish the impact of structural elements, sometimes with iconographic rôles. Most cultures have evolved their own ...
Walter Sickert

Walter Sickert  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(b Munich, 31 May 1860; d Bathampton, Somerset, 22 Jan. 1942).British painter, printmaker, teacher, and critic, one of the most important figures of his time in British art. He was born in Germany of ...
automatism

automatism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
513 words

...of such spontaneous discovery of representational images in chance natural formations of cave walls. In its fully developed form, however, automatism did not appear until the 20th century. The Dadaists made some use of the idea, but they were more interested in chance effects than in automatism as such, and it was the Surrealists who first made automatism an important part of their creative outlook; whereas the Dadaists used the idea dispassionately, to the Surrealists exploration of the unconscious through such methods was deeply personal. They...

automatism

automatism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
495 words

...of such spontaneous discovery of representational images in chance natural formations of cave walls. However, automatism in its fully developed form did not appear until the 20th century. The Dadaists made some use of the idea, but they were more interested in chance effects than in automatism as such, and it was the Surrealists who first made automatism an important part of their creative outlook: whereas the Dadaists used the idea dispassionately, to the Surrealists exploration of the unconscious through such methods was deeply personal. They...

Overstreet, Joe

Overstreet, Joe (20 June 1933)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
369 words

...Joe ( b Conehatta, MS , 20 June 1933 ), painter . Born in rural Mississippi, Overstreet grew up primarily in the Bay Area, California. Following some time in the Merchant Marines and in San Francisco, Overstreet moved to New York City in 1958 , where he set up his studio for most of his career. In the early 1960s, Overstreet was directly involved with the Black Arts Repertory Theater, part of a career-long commitment to the African American legacy in the arts. In 1974 , he co-founded with Samuel C. Floyd and his partner Corrine Jennings Kenkeleba...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter (1892–1940)   Reference library

Patrizia di Bello

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
326 words

...on art of its reproducibility through photographs, claiming that the original work's aura of authenticity withers as it comes closer to a mass audience. This loss is both mourned and welcomed: new forms develop, such as photography and film, which do not rely on there being one original but many, circulating in a variety of contexts and receiving meaning from all of them. Also, a certain reciprocity develops: works of art become, or become seen as, designed to be reproduced, and reproduction becomes part of the work itself. PDB Patrizia di Bello Arendt, H. ,...

Historicism

Historicism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
350 words

..., supposedly a reaction against historical revivals, was too firmly embedded in late Gothic and Celtic Revivals , and even (obviously) in Rococo , to be regarded as such, in spite of the claims of its protagonists and its later apologists. The International Modernists’ rejection of history (and, supposedly, of all styles (save their own)) in turn created in C20 reactions, where certain architects, perceiving that a serious disruption had taken place, attempted to consider the nature of their own relationship with history, and to rebuild bridges to a...

Dalí, Salvador

Dalí, Salvador (11 May 1904)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
642 words

...paranoia’. This involved elaborating on the images of his dreams and fantasies and substituting them for—or merging them with—the world of natural appearances. It resulted particularly in the ambiguous double images that play such a large part in his work, in which a form can be read, for example, as part of a landscape or part of a human body. During the heyday of Surrealism in the 1930s Dalí produced several of the established ‘icons’ of the movement, using a meticulous academic technique that was contradicted by the unreal ‘dream’ space he depicted and by the...

Dalí, Salvador

Dalí, Salvador   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
639 words

...paranoia’. This involved elaborating on the images of his dreams and fantasies and substituting them for—or merging them with—the world of natural appearances. It resulted particularly in the ambiguous double images that play such a large part in his work, in which a form can be read, for example, as part of a landscape or part of a human body. During the heyday of Surrealism in the 1930s Dalí produced several of the established ‘icons’ of the movement, using a meticulous academic technique that was contradicted by the unreal ‘dream’ space he depicted and by the...

Brutalism

Brutalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
615 words

...blocks of flats built throughout the world that use the prestige of Le Corbusier’s béton brut as an excuse for low-cost surface treatments’. The intellectual confusion surrounding New Brutalism was symptomatic of a serious malaise: rigour and ‘ethics’ played no part in suspect claims and shaky pedigrees. AD , xxiii (Dec. 1953) 342; AJ , cxliv /26 (28 Dec. 1966) 1590–1; AR , cxviii /708 (Dec. 1955), 355–61; R.Ba (1966); OED Supplement , i (1987), 371; Sn (ed.) ( 1968 ) ; J.T ( 1996 ) ; M.Webb ( 1969...

ornament

ornament   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
642 words

...that ornament, far from being an afterthought, stuck on a building (as was often the case in C20), was more symbolic and essential to architecture than structure. Ornament, he insisted, was conditioned by tradition, and by millennia of evolution from its origins in patterns that appeared in Urkunst (original art, e.g. weaving). Semper was claimed by Modernists for their cause, but they clearly had not read nor were capable of understanding him. Fergusson claimed that ornament was architecture’s poetic element, while structure was altogether more prosaic....

historiography of photography

historiography of photography   Reference library

Molly Rogers

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
972 words

...of photography took shape as a debate about the identity of the medium's inventor. Well into the 20th century, photographers and chemists (the early histories were written by practitioners, for practitioners) argued for the claim of one or another individual to have first solved the problem of fixing images, and they often did so along nationalistic lines. In his 1925 Histoire de la découverte de la photographie (Eng. 1936 ), Georges Potonniée claimed unequivocally that it was Nicéphore Niépce who deserved sole credit, and played down the role of...

Automatism

Automatism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
903 words

...developed form is a 20th-century phenomenon. The Dadaists made some use of the idea, although they were more interested in chance effects than in automatism as such. In 1916–17 , for example, Arp made a series of Collages with Squares Arranged According to the Laws of Chance , in which he said he arranged the pieces of paper ‘automatically, without will’, and in 1920 Picabia published an ink blot labelled La Sainte Vierge in his magazine 391 . However, it was the Surrealists who first made automatism an important part of their creative...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
748 words

...1919. Under his leadership the School rapidly moved away from its Arts-and-Crafts ideals (although Gropius claimed his policies were derived from notions promoted by the Deutscher Werkbund ), and the Bauhaus became a centre for Modernist theorizing, especially from 1922, when van Doesburg was there, propagating Constructivist and De - Stijl themes. Thereafter, self-dramatization was the forte of the institution, for although the Bauhaus claimed to be inspired by notions of unifying art and technology, it did nothing of the sort: its protagonists...

Yoakum, Joseph

Yoakum, Joseph (20 Feb 1890)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
476 words

...Joseph ( b Ash Grove, MO , 20 Feb 1890 ; d Chicago, IL , 25 Dec 1972 ), painter of African, Cherokee, Creek and European ancestry. Although Yoakum claimed to have been born on a Navajo reservation in 1988 , his birthplace and childhood home has been established as Ash Grove, MO. His aunt was adopted by a Navajo family, and although the artist drew great inspiration from the Navajo, his connection to them was imaginary. Yoakum's life was indeed one of adventure and travel—he toured with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, the Ringling Bros. Circus and...

collage

collage   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
415 words

...Long popular as a leisure-time occupation for children and amateurs (in scrapbooks, for example), it first became an acknowledged artistic technique in the early 20th century, when it drew much of its material from the proliferation of mass-produced images in newspapers, advertisements, cheap popular illustrations, etc. The Cubists were the first to make collage a systematic and important part of their work. Picasso began using the technique in 1912 , one of the earliest examples being Still Life with Chair Caning ( 1912 , Musée Picasso , Paris) in...

airports

airports   Reference library

Patrick Goode

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
991 words
Illustration(s):
1

...vaulting. Finally, one must not forget that the passenger sees only a small part of the airport design, as vast numbers of hangars, maintenance and administration buildings are needed. From the first half of the 20th century, some of these are of considerable architectural distinction: the concrete hangars by Freyssinet (Orly Airport, 1916–24 ) and Nervi (Orbetello, c .1942 ); and the aluminium Comet Flight Test Hangar (Hatfield, James M. Monro, 1952–4 , not strictly part of the airport). Technical Block A, Heathrow ( Owen Williams , 1950–55 ),...

Feminist Art Journal, The

Feminist Art Journal, The   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
579 words

...in part to attract more readers, Nemser switched the journal from a tabloid format to a more traditional one and began soliciting advertisements. Despite these changes, the journal eventually folded because of financial concerns. In a conversation with Corimme Robins , Mainardi claimed the journal and others of its ilk were undermined in some ways by their own success. Before publications like The Feminist Art Journal , it was difficult to get anything in print on women artists, either essays about them or reproductions of their work. By 1977 , in part...

Dalí, Salvador

Dalí, Salvador (1904–89)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
860 words

...paranoia’. This involved elaborating on the images of his dreams and fantasies and substituting them for—or merging them with—the world of natural appearances. It resulted particularly in the ambiguous double images that play such a large part in his work, in which a form can be read, for example, as part of a landscape or part of a human body. During the heyday of Surrealism in the 1930s Dalí produced several of the best-known works of the movement, using a meticulous academic technique that was contradicted by the unreal ‘dream’ space he depicted and by the...

Still, Clyfford

Still, Clyfford (1904–80)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
892 words

...20still%22&search_by=all&op=Search&title=%22clyfford%20still%22&field_brief_bio_value=%22clyfford%20still%22&title_person=%22clyfford%20still%22&field_description_value=%22clyfford%20still%22&name=clyfford%20still&field_view_status_value=All&field_description_value_1_op==&field_collection_highlights_value=All&field_image_target_id_op=not%20empty&sort_by=collection_highlights&with_images=1 Images http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=%22clyfford%20still%22&perPage=20...

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