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New Zealand

For most of its first 100 years New Zealand was frequently described as the ‘Britain of the South’; for those who were of British descent, the majority of the population ...

New Zealand floral region

New Zealand floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Zealand floral region Part of R. Good’s Antarctic kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ). Approximately 30 genera are known to be endemic to it, but the surprisingly large number of endemic species (about 75% of the total) belong very largely to non-endemic...

Emerging Coasts

Emerging Coasts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,168 words
Illustration(s):
1

...coasts are also found in earthquake-prone areas of the North Island of New Zealand, in New Guinea and Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Japan. Examples of recently emerged coasts are seen around Tokyo Bay, where raised beaches were elevated during earthquakes in 1703 and 1923 . In the vicinity of Wellington, New Zealand, parts of the coastline were uplifted by as much as a meter during the 1855 earthquake, forming emerged shore platforms. An earthquake at Hawke Bay, New Zealand, in 1931 raised the coastal plain near Napier by up to 2 m and drained...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,079 words
Illustration(s):
2

...America. Most of Africa and Madagascar are included in the Ethiopian region. The Oriental region is bounded on the north and west by the Himalayan mountains and associated ranges; it includes India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The Australasian region, which includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and several islands in the East Indies, is completely isolated and possesses many endemic species. Subsequently, A. R. Wallace demonstrated that other animal groups have equally distinctive patterns that reflect their adaptation to globally variable environmental...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,732 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the Sahara Desert is included with Madagascar in the Ethiopian region. The Oriental region is bounded on the north and west by the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Massif; it includes India, Ceylon and Malaysia. The Australasian region, which consists of Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and several islands in the East Indies, is completely isolated and possesses many endemic species. Biological Realms. Figure 1. Zoological Regions of the World Based on the Distribution of Mammals. (Modifed from Pielou, 1979.) Floristic Regions Most families of...

Driftnet Convention

Driftnet Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Ocean Development and International Law 25 (1994), 127–186. de Fontaubert, A. C. Managing Marine Resources under International Law: Challenges and Opportunities. Presentation to the Seaviews Conference on Marine Ecosystem Management Obligations and Opportunities. Wellington, New Zealand, February 1998. Food and Agriculture Organization. Report of the Expert Consultation on Large-Scale Driftnet Fishing. FAO Fisheries Report No. 434. ——. The Regulation of Driftnet Fishing in the High Seas: Legal Issues. Annex I, FAO Legislative Study, 1991. Hewison, G. J. High...

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... Environmental Assessment in Developing and Transitional Countries . Chichester, U.K., and New York: Wiley, 2000. Includes coverage of the principles, processes, and practices of EIA followed by case studies of EIA undertaken by and for countries and institutions. Marsden, S. , and S. Dovers , eds. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Australasia . Annandale, New South Wales: Federation Press, 2002. Coverage of SEA in Australia with reference to the New Zealand experience. Morrison-Saunders, A. , and J. Arts , eds. Assessing Impact: Handbook of EIA and...

Loess

Loess   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,307 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Kröhling, 2003 ). A combination of semiarid and arid conditions in the Andes rain shadow, combined with glacial outwash from those mountains, created near ideal conditions ( Zarate , 2003 ). The Argentinian loess region is the most extensive in the Southern Hemisphere. New Zealand has the other major loess deposits of the Southern Hemisphere. They cover large areas, especially in eastern South Island and southern North Island ( Eden and Hammond , 2003 ). The loess has been derived mainly from dust deflated by westerly winds from the many broad,...

Grasslands

Grasslands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

...some 250 million hectares of rolling plains that extend from Hungary to Manchuria. Temperate grasslands are represented in the Southern Hemisphere by the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay, and southeastern Brazil (70 million hectares); smaller areas are found in the drier parts of New Zealand (0.6 million hectares) with occasional patches in southeastern Australia. The veld of the high plains of southern Africa is also included in this biome. Vegetation cover in the temperate grasslands is relatively homogeneous, but important floristic and structural differences...

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Working Group I Co-Chairs Working Group II Co-Chairs Working Group III Co-Chairs Task Force Bureau Co-Chairs China Argentina Sierra Leone Brazil USA UK The Netherlands Japan Vice-Chairs Vice-Chairs Vice-Chairs Gambia Australia Cuba France Belgium Denmark Italy Canada Indonesia New Zealand Mexico Peru Thailand Morocco Saudi Arabia Venezuela Slovenia Sudan Following the example set in Berne in 2006 , IHDP organized a Science-Policy Symposium at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in the spring of 2008 on the themes of energy, greenhouse-gas emissions,...

Human Dimensions of Global Change

Human Dimensions of Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...absorbed most of these migrants, but Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia, and Central Asia also received substantial immigration. The extermination or displacement of indigenous peoples commonly accompanied these migrations. Many of the pioneers settled in areas that had been thinly occupied by the indigenous peoples, and too frequently the ecological well-being of the colonized territories was imperiled by new modes of land use. The initial wave of European settlement was generally followed by substantial...

Migrations

Migrations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...systems in their own right. As fertility declined in Europe from the 1960s, and as Europe experienced the post–World War II economic boom, it became a continent of net immigration rather than of net emigration. The migration to the main settler societies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States, on the other hand, shifted from streams dominated by people of European origins to those dominated by people of Asian and Latin American origins. The reasons for these changes were not solely demographic, of course; in the case of the settler societies,...

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Republic −8 Estonia −8 Latvia −8 Liechtenstein −8 Lithuania −8 Monaco −8 Romania −8 Slovakia −8 Slovenia −8 Switzerland −7 United States ** −6 Canada −6 Hungary −6 Japan −6 Poland −5 Croatia 0 New Zealand 0 Russian Federation 0 Ukraine +1 Norway +8 Australia ** +10 Iceland ** United States and Australia have not ratified the protocol In addition to establishing new commitments, the Protocol is an integral part of the institutions established by the FCCC. Parties to the Protocol must be parties to the FCCC. The FCCC and the Kyoto Protocol will share the same...

Soils

Soils   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,577 words
Illustration(s):
1

...so great that erosion processes operate on a different scale. The continuous addition of primary rock minerals from volcanic eruptions makes early-stage products of epimorphism much more common. The soils of New Zealand have been formed in this environment. All of the processes of soil formation have a different emphasis and relative balance in New Zealand than in nearby Australia, and the following points are critical to understanding the nature and distribution of soil materials: • Over most of the country, topographic relief is considerable and slopes are...

Environmental Movements

Environmental Movements   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...policy. To achieve these ends, members of environmental movements may organize themselves into political parties or form nonprofit organizations. There are currently about 75 national green political parties worldwide. The earliest were organized in the early 1970s in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The United States Green Party formed in the mid-1980s, by which time West German Greens had already gained significant representation in government. Most environmental groups are not political parties but nongovernmental organizations ( NGOs )....

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

... Luxembourg  Netherlands  Portugal  Spain  Sweden  United Kingdom −8 Bulgaria −8 Czech Republic −8 Estonia −8 Latvia −8 Liechtenstein −8 Lithuania −8 Monaco −8 Romania −8 Slovakia −8 Slovenia −8 Switzerland −7 United States −6 Canada −6 Hungary −6 Japan −6 Poland −5 Croatia 0 New Zealand 0 Russian Federation 0 Ukraine +1 Norway +8 Australia +10 Iceland *The percentage change is from emission levels of 1990 (for all gases, weighted by GWP), with some provisions for flexibility discussed in the text. Parties may pool and reallocate their targets among their...

Younger Dryas

Younger Dryas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...confirmed in any area, because very high-resolution AMS-dated sites are rare; none has proven the absence of an oscillation during this interval. Regions where existing data exhibit no palynological oscillation include Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, and New Zealand, but in some of these same areas (New Zealand and possibly Peru) glacial advances do indicate a YD correlative. Today, the most widely accepted hypothesis for the cause of the YD oscillation is a slowdown in NADW production ( Broecker et al., 1985 ; McManus et al., 2004 ). A colder, fresher...

Younger Dryas

Younger Dryas   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,511 words
Illustration(s):
1

...high-resolution AMS-dated sites are rare, and none has been cited to prove that an oscillation is lacking during this interval. Regions where existing data suggest that no palynological oscillation took place include Ecuador and Peru, South Africa, and New Zealand, but in some of these same areas (New Zealand, possibly Peru) glacial advances do indicate a YD correlative. Younger Dryas. Figure 1. Global Map of Distribution of Palynological Evidence for the Younger Dryas Cooling, 12,900–11,600 bp .Where clear palynological evidence exists for a climate...

Soils

Soils   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...erosion processes operate on a different scale. The continuous addition of primary rock minerals from andesitic volcanic eruptions makes early-stage products of epimorphism much more common. The soils of New Zealand provide examples from this environment. All of the processes of soil formation have a different emphasis and relative balance in New Zealand than in nearby Australia, and the following points are critical to understanding the nature and distribution of soil materials. 1. Over most of the country, topographic relief is considerable and slopes are...

Acid Rain and Acid Deposition

Acid Rain and Acid Deposition   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,165 words
Illustration(s):
2

...at this time. Referring to the contemporary scientific literature, Eriksson ( 1952 ) describes the sulfur concentration of rainfall for a variety of locations in Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, and New Zealand during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Since all of these locations except some parts of Russia had sulfur levels above those of New Zealand, Eriksson described them as being impacted by “atmospheric pollution.” Herman and Gorham ( 1957 ) first reported elevated sulfur and hydrogen ion concentrations in rainfall. Cogbill and Likens ( 1974 )...

Paleoclimate

Paleoclimate   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,725 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Mediterranean. Ice covered nearly one-third of the land area of the earth, but the additional ice-covered area in the last glacial was almost all in the Northern Hemisphere, with only about 3 per cent in the Southern, though substantial ice cover did develop over Patagonia and New Zealand. The thickness of the ice sheets may have exceeded 4 km, with typical depths of 2 to 3 km. The total ice-covered area at a typical glacial maximum was 40 × 10 6 km 2 . Significant changes also took place in the oceans. During the present interglacial (the Holocene), the...

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