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Overview

New Zealand

Subject: History

New Zealand now has one of the world's least regulated economies New Zealand consists of two main islands. The larger, South Island, is also the more mountainous, dominated by ...

New Zealand floral region

New Zealand floral region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Environment and Conservation (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Zealand floral region Part of R. Good’s Antarctic kingdom ( The Geography of the Flowering Plants , 1974 ). Approximately 30 genera are known to be endemic to it, but the surprisingly large number of endemic species (about 75% of the total) belong very largely to non-endemic...

Antarctic realm

Antarctic realm  

A biogeographical realm in the southern hemisphere, which contains a variety of ecosystems from temperate forest and grassland in New Zealand to tundra and ice sheets in Antarctica.
periphery

periphery  

The edge, or margin. Murray and Challies (2006) Asia Pacif. Viewpt 47, 3 describe New Zealand as a resource periphery and Chile as semi-peripheral. ‘Urban peripheries organize what remains of the ...
Jusscannz

Jusscannz  

A group of developed countries outside the European Union, which share information and discuss matters of common interest (including the Kyoto Protocol). It stands for Japan, the US, Switzerland, ...
Pacific Ring of Fire

Pacific Ring of Fire  

A volcanic zone that runs right around the edges of the Pacific Ocean, along a series of subduction zones of convergent plate boundaries, where the moving plates of the Pacific plunge beneath the ...
marine west coast forest

marine west coast forest  

A coniferous temperate forest biome that is found along the marine west coast of some continents, including the Pacific Northwest of North America, north‐west Europe, southern Chile, and New Zealand. ...
First World

First World  

The industrialized capitalist or market economy countries of Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand that were the first to industrialize. See also Second World, Third World.
geothermal energy

geothermal energy  

Heat within the earth's interior that is a potential source of energy. Volcanoes, geysers, hot springs, and fumaroles are all sources of geothermal energy. The main areas of the world in which these ...
Antarctic Circumpolar Wave

Antarctic Circumpolar Wave   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...warm tropical water and cold polar water. They take c .8–10 years to circle the globe, and may be directly linked through a teleconnection with El Niño Southern Oscillation activity. Distinct correlations exist with weather over South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand...

geothermal energy

geothermal energy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Energy Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...decay of isotopes of heavy nuclei and the heat of crystallization due to the solidification of molten rock. It is most readily available in geologically active parts of the world close to the interfaces between tectonic plates , such as Iceland, California, Italy, and New Zealand, where naturally occurring steam jets (geysers) and hot springs provide a ready source of heat. In other areas, geothermal energy can be extracted by drilling boreholes to a depth of a few kilometres into hot dry rock formations—the geothermal gradient is typically ~30 °...

Emerging Coasts

Emerging Coasts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,168 words
Illustration(s):
1

...coasts are also found in earthquake-prone areas of the North Island of New Zealand, in New Guinea and Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Japan. Examples of recently emerged coasts are seen around Tokyo Bay, where raised beaches were elevated during earthquakes in 1703 and 1923 . In the vicinity of Wellington, New Zealand, parts of the coastline were uplifted by as much as a meter during the 1855 earthquake, forming emerged shore platforms. An earthquake at Hawke Bay, New Zealand, in 1931 raised the coastal plain near Napier by up to 2 m and drained...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,079 words
Illustration(s):
2

...America. Most of Africa and Madagascar are included in the Ethiopian region. The Oriental region is bounded on the north and west by the Himalayan mountains and associated ranges; it includes India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia. The Australasian region, which includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and several islands in the East Indies, is completely isolated and possesses many endemic species. Subsequently, A. R. Wallace demonstrated that other animal groups have equally distinctive patterns that reflect their adaptation to globally variable environmental...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,732 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the Sahara Desert is included with Madagascar in the Ethiopian region. The Oriental region is bounded on the north and west by the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Massif; it includes India, Ceylon and Malaysia. The Australasian region, which consists of Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and several islands in the East Indies, is completely isolated and possesses many endemic species. Biological Realms. Figure 1. Zoological Regions of the World Based on the Distribution of Mammals. (Modifed from Pielou, 1979.) Floristic Regions Most families of...

Driftnet Convention

Driftnet Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Ocean Development and International Law 25 (1994), 127–186. de Fontaubert, A. C. Managing Marine Resources under International Law: Challenges and Opportunities. Presentation to the Seaviews Conference on Marine Ecosystem Management Obligations and Opportunities. Wellington, New Zealand, February 1998. Food and Agriculture Organization. Report of the Expert Consultation on Large-Scale Driftnet Fishing. FAO Fisheries Report No. 434. ——. The Regulation of Driftnet Fishing in the High Seas: Legal Issues. Annex I, FAO Legislative Study, 1991. Hewison, G. J. High...

Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... Environmental Assessment in Developing and Transitional Countries . Chichester, U.K., and New York: Wiley, 2000. Includes coverage of the principles, processes, and practices of EIA followed by case studies of EIA undertaken by and for countries and institutions. Marsden, S. , and S. Dovers , eds. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Australasia . Annandale, New South Wales: Federation Press, 2002. Coverage of SEA in Australia with reference to the New Zealand experience. Morrison-Saunders, A. , and J. Arts , eds. Assessing Impact: Handbook of EIA and...

Loess

Loess   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,307 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(Kröhling, 2003 ). A combination of semiarid and arid conditions in the Andes rain shadow, combined with glacial outwash from those mountains, created near ideal conditions ( Zarate , 2003 ). The Argentinian loess region is the most extensive in the Southern Hemisphere. New Zealand has the other major loess deposits of the Southern Hemisphere. They cover large areas, especially in eastern South Island and southern North Island ( Eden and Hammond , 2003 ). The loess has been derived mainly from dust deflated by westerly winds from the many broad,...

Grasslands

Grasslands   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,960 words
Illustration(s):
1

...some 250 million hectares of rolling plains that extend from Hungary to Manchuria. Temperate grasslands are represented in the Southern Hemisphere by the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay, and southeastern Brazil (70 million hectares); smaller areas are found in the drier parts of New Zealand (0.6 million hectares) with occasional patches in southeastern Australia. The veld of the high plains of southern Africa is also included in this biome. Vegetation cover in the temperate grasslands is relatively homogeneous, but important floristic and structural differences...

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)

International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Working Group I Co-Chairs Working Group II Co-Chairs Working Group III Co-Chairs Task Force Bureau Co-Chairs China Argentina Sierra Leone Brazil USA UK The Netherlands Japan Vice-Chairs Vice-Chairs Vice-Chairs Gambia Australia Cuba France Belgium Denmark Italy Canada Indonesia New Zealand Mexico Peru Thailand Morocco Saudi Arabia Venezuela Slovenia Sudan Following the example set in Berne in 2006 , IHDP organized a Science-Policy Symposium at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in the spring of 2008 on the themes of energy, greenhouse-gas emissions,...

Human Dimensions of Global Change

Human Dimensions of Global Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...absorbed most of these migrants, but Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Siberia, and Central Asia also received substantial immigration. The extermination or displacement of indigenous peoples commonly accompanied these migrations. Many of the pioneers settled in areas that had been thinly occupied by the indigenous peoples, and too frequently the ecological well-being of the colonized territories was imperiled by new modes of land use. The initial wave of European settlement was generally followed by substantial...

Migrations

Migrations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...systems in their own right. As fertility declined in Europe from the 1960s, and as Europe experienced the post–World War II economic boom, it became a continent of net immigration rather than of net emigration. The migration to the main settler societies of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States, on the other hand, shifted from streams dominated by people of European origins to those dominated by people of Asian and Latin American origins. The reasons for these changes were not solely demographic, of course; in the case of the settler societies,...

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