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Overview

New Zealand

Subject: History

New Zealand now has one of the world's least regulated economies New Zealand consists of two main islands. The larger, South Island, is also the more mountainous, dominated by ...

Denizen Labels

Denizen Labels   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,443 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Maldova Maldovan Mali Malian Malta Maltese Martinique Martiniquais Mexico Mexican Micronesia Micronesian Monaco Monacan, Monegasque Mongolia Mongolian Morocco Moroccan Myanmar Burmese, Myanmarese Nepal Nepalese The Netherlands Hollander, Netherlander, ✳Netherlandian New Zealand New Zealander Nicaragua Nicaraguan Niger Nigerien ( /nɪ-jir-ee- en / ) Nigeria Nigerian ( /nɪ- jir -ee-әn/ ) Norway Norwegian Oman Omani Pakistan Pakistani Palau Palauan Panama Panamanian Paraguay Paraguayan Peru Peruvian Philippines Filipino Poland Pole Portugal Portuguese Puerto...

Obscurity

Obscurity   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
910 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...difficult, and difficult ideas are often made much more difficult than they need to be. Obscurity has myriad causes, most of them rooted in imprecise thought or lack of consideration for the reader. The following examples are winners of a “Bad Writing Contest” held in New Zealand in 1997 . All three are by English professors—the first two American and the third British: • “The visual is essentially pornographic, which is to say that it has its end in rapt mindless fascination; thinking about its attributes becomes an adjunct to that, if it is...

English

English   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...The West Germanic language that first developed in England and southern Scotland, and is now spoken throughout the British Isles and in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the West Indies, as well as by significant communities in southern Africa, south and south-east Asia, and elsewhere. See also basic English ; bbc english ; middle english ; modern english ; nuclear English ; old english ; standard english...

vocabulary

vocabulary   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
330 words

...how many words there are in the English language, partly because the notion of word is difficult to define, and partly because of problematic issues such as whether to include obsolete or dialect words, slang, words in recognized varieties of English (e.g. Indian English, New Zealand English), and so on. A typical desk dictionary may define about 100,000 vocabulary items, while the Oxford English Dictionary lists more than 600,000. As for how many words an individual English-speaking adult knows or uses, estimates vary greatly. Figures published in 1940...

yous

yous   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., youse are regional and dialectal forms of you (plural). In Britain they are associated especially with the speech of Glasgow and Liverpool, and they occur in American, Australian, and New Zealand literature reproducing non-standard speech: It’s the least I can do for youse — E. Jolley, AusE 1985 By time youse all get here, youse big thirsty — New Zealand Ezine , 2004...

viceregal

viceregal   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...viceregal is the usual term for ‘of or relating to a viceroy’, not viceroyal , though the latter had some currency in the 18c. and 19c. In Australia and New Zealand, viceregal is used of a...

yogurt

yogurt   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is the preferred spelling, although yoghurt (with an h ) is also common. It is pronounced yog -uht in BrE, and yoh -guht in AmE and in Australia and New Zealand...

geyser

geyser   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... The pronunciation in both its main meanings (‘hot spring’ and ‘heating apparatus’) is now gee -zuh , although giy -zuh is also used for the ‘hot spring’ meaning. In America and New Zealand, where the ‘heater’ meaning is not used, the pronunciation is uniformly giy -zuh...

drink-driving

drink-driving   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...drink-driving . A term first recorded in 1964 for the legal offence of driving a vehicle with an excess of alcohol in the blood; hence drink-driver . The preferred term in British, Irish, Australian and New Zealand English, it is best written with a hyphen. See drunk driving...

fulcrum

fulcrum   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... fulcra , especially in technical writing, or fulcrums , particularly in its metaphorical meaning ‘a thing that plays a central or essential role’: And, as he was one of the fulcrums of the Maori cultural renaissance of the early 1970s, his place in our history is the same — New Zealand Listener , 2004 . See -um 3...

primer

primer   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...primer . The word meaning ‘an elementary or introductory book’ is always pronounced /ˈprʌɪmə/ in Britain, but /ˈprimə/ in America, New Zealand, and sometimes in Australia. It is interesting to note that the OED ( 1909 ) gave priority to the form with a short stem vowel. The form with /ɪ/ is preserved in Britain when the word is used of a size of...

crayfish

crayfish   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., a 16c alteration of an earlier word crevis (or crevisse ), is the usual word in Britain for a small lobster-like freshwater crustacean. Americans call them crawfish , and Australians and New Zealanders often abbreviate the word to cray (as in cray-fishing and cray-pot...

Maori

Maori   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
227 words

...continue to say /ˈmaƱri/ , as does everyone outside New Zealand. The spelling Māori and the use of the word as an uninflected plural in order to accord with the conventions of the Maori language are shown in The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature ( 1991 ). It is too early yet to see whether these new conventions will prevail. Examples from this book: The 1980s…ended in a sesquicentennial year full of reminders, for most Māori and many Pākehā, of longstanding injustices still to be remedied —T. Sturm; There has been a written form of Māori...

cataphoric

cataphoric (adjective)   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...cataphoric (adjective) . First (19c.) used of the action of an electric current, it is now (since the 1970s) used by grammarians of a reference to a succeeding word or group of words. In the sentence After his discovery of New Zealand, Captain Cook went on to discover several Pacific islands, his refers forward to Captain Cook , i.e. is cataphoric. There are numerous more complicated types of grammatical cataphora. Cf. anaphora 2...

fulcrum

fulcrum   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., particularly in technical or scientific writing, but fulcrums in its metaphorical meaning of ‘a thing that plays a central or essential role’: And, as he was one of the fulcrums of the Maori cultural renaissance of the early 1970s, his place in our history is the same — New Zealand Listener , 2004...

lend

lend   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

.... 1 see loan . Use of lend for borrow ( Can I lend your pen? ) occurs in some British dialects but is non-standard. 2 Use of lend as a noun occurs in British dialect use and colloquially in New Zealand, but is non-standard: Could you give me the lend of a bob? — Frank Sargeson , NewZE 1946 Just ringing this feller to ask if I could have a lend of his gun — J. Howker , BrE 1985...

Maori

Maori   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is pronounced as two syllables ( mow -ri ) and has the plural form Maoris in general usage, although Maoris themselves have been urging non-Maoris in New Zealand and elsewhere to use their own pronunciation of the name with three syllables ( mah -aw-ri ) and to adopt their plural form Maori , the same as the singular. The plural form is more likely to succeed than the pronunciation, since the two-syllable form is more natural to most speakers of...

crape

crape   Reference library

Fowler’s Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., crêpe . The first is used for a band of black silk or ornamental silk worn as a sign of mourning, and the second, written with the accent and in roman, for other gauzelike fabrics having a wrinkled surface. There are some other special distinctions: ( a ) crape fern , a New Zealand fern; crape hair , artificial hair used in stage make-up; but ( b ) crêpe de Chine, crêpe paper (thin crinkled paper), and crêpe Suzette (dessert...

cinema

cinema   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
105 words

.... Today, in BrE one can still say that one is going to the cinema to see a film ; in AmE one goes to the movies or to a theater to see a movie . In Australia and New Zealand, one goes to the pictures or a picture theatre to see a film . However, movie is spreading fast into BrE and other varieties, and will undoubtedly take over in the end ( In many ways this movie heralded a new dawn in gritty British film-making — Radio Times , 1998 ). Motion pictures , or the motion-picture industry , is used of the business world of film-making in all...

finalize

finalize   Quick reference

Fowler’s Concise Dictionary of Modern English Usage (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
103 words

..., as a synonym of complete or finish , came into use in the 1920s in Australia and New Zealand, then in the US and, in the 1930s, in Britain. It was widely denounced by usage pundits such as Partridge and Gowers as an unnecessary addition; but it often has a stronger sense of effective conclusion than is conveyed by complete or finish : Arrangements have also been finalized for the establishment of a ranching scheme at Jaldesa — Inside Kenya Today , 1971 The two companies now have 120 days to finalize an implementation agreement under the terms of...

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