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Nadar

1820–1910), French photographer, and a central figure in the extraordinary expansion of photography in the mid‐19th century. An exact contemporary of Charles Nègre and Gustave Le ...

nadar

nadar   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sikh Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Religion
Length:
123 words

...nadar (‘glance’ of kindness) The term signifies grace as Vāhigurū ’s free and sovereign act of self-disclosure. Vāhigurū imparts grace when his glance falls upon the beneficiary. The nature of grace is such that it is a matter of divine free choice that does not depend upon any kind of previous growth in spirituality. The Sikh Gurūs have repeatedly emphasized the idea that Vāhigurū’s gifts are not ultimately dependent upon the merit of the individual, and no amount of austerity can force it out of his hands. If Vāhigurū chooses to withhold his gracious glance...

Grace

Grace   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
154 words

...(for anugraha ); PRAPATTI. As a concept, grace is of great importance for Sikhs, in Gurū Nānak 's hymns and in all subsequent Sikh theology. Analogous to the benedictory glance of a human guru, this sense of God's loving favour is conveyed by the words praśad , kirpā , nadar , bakhśīś , bhāṇā , daiā , mihar , and taras . This concept of grace is not a denial of karma , but God's initiative can override the result of bad actions. However, the individual must strive to improve. 2 Short prayers of invocation and thanksgiving, before and after...

VOWS AND OATHS

VOWS AND OATHS   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
687 words

...taking of oaths, like that of vows, is discouraged in Judaism. An exception is the practice of vowing to make a contribution to a synagogue on the occasion of being called to the reading of the Torah. This is publicly announced with a blessing for the person who hasvowed ( she-nadar ); in Yiddish the practice became known as shnodder . Tony W. Cartledge , Vows in the Hebrew Bible and the Ancient Near East (Sheffield, UK, 1992). Yosef Karo , Shulḥan ʿArukh (Jerusalem, 1995). Dale Patrick , Old Testament Law (Atlanta, 1985). Lawrence H. Schiffman , “...

Sikhism

Sikhism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
747 words

...the way to release or liberation is to move one's life against one's own wilful and disordered inclination ( haumai ) into alignment with the will (hukam) of God. This is only possible because of the help of God, the equivalent of grace , described in many words, e.g. kirpā , nadar , praśād . Those who do so pass through stages ( khaṇḍ ): dharam khaṇḍ (living appropriately; cf. dharma ); giān̄ khaṇḍ (deeper knowledge); saram khaṇḍ (effort or joy); karam khaṇḍ (effort or joy); sach khaṇḍ (bliss beyond words and beyond rebirth, merging with the divine as...

African Biblical Interpretation

African Biblical Interpretation   Reference library

Musa W. Dube

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,140 words

...Eerdmans, 1989. Mosala, J. Itumeleng . “Ownership or Non-Ownership of Land.” In Guma and Milton, An African Challenge , 57–72. Cape Town, South Africa: Revelation Desk Top, 1997. Nadar, S. “On Being the Pentecostal Church: Pentecostal Women’s Voices and Visions.” In On Being Church: African Women’s Voices and Visions , edited by Isabel A. Phiri and Sarojini Nadar , 60–79. Geneva, Switzerland: World Council of Churches, 2005. Ntloedibe-Kuswani, Seratwa . “The Case of Modimo in the Setswana Bible.” In Other Ways of Reading: African Women and the Bible...

Oaths and Vows

Oaths and Vows   Reference library

Jerome F. D. Creach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,242 words

...between oaths and vows, both terms could be used to describe a human pledge of faithful action. Thus, Psalm 132:2 includes both expressions in parallel to describe David’s intention to make a home for the ark in Jerusalem: “he swore [ nišbaʿ ] to the Lord and vowed [ nādar ] to the Mighty One of Jacob.” Language and Logic of Oaths and Vows. The Old Testament most frequently connotes oaths and oath-making with the Hebrew root šābaʿ , meaning “to swear.” Verbal forms of the root communicate the act of swearing ( Gen 21:23–24 ), and noun forms connote...

Oaths and Vows

Oaths and Vows   Reference library

Andrew R. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,171 words

...the particle ʾim or kî (or kî ʾim ), but these particles are not connected syntactically to the preceding formula. The standard Hebrew word for “vow” is neder , and the act of making a vow is usually expressed in Hebrew as a cognate accusative, that is, “to vow a vow” ( nādar neder ). The fulfillment of vows involves a greater variety of verbs, including šillēm (“to fulfill”), ʿāśâ (“to carry out”), hēqîm (“to be valid”), and pillēʾ (“to express”). Because vows are conditional promises contingent on divine action, they consist of a conditional...

Upper Cloth Revolt of 1859 (Melmundu Samaram)

Upper Cloth Revolt of 1859 (Melmundu Samaram)   Reference library

Selvister Ponnumuthan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Nadar women and Izhava women were desirous of having the freedom of dress. They were not permitted this by caste rules, which were supported by government regulations. The Nairs complained to the government about the Nadars regarding clothes. The government issued an order in 1813 allowing the Nadars and Izhavas to wear jackets called Kupayam like the Christian, Shonaga, and Mopla women. However, the Nadars were not satisfied with that proclamation. Under the leadership of Muthukutty, known as ‘Vaikunda Swami’, and the Christian missionaries, the Nadars...

Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias

Ringeltaube, Wilhelm Tobias (8 August 1770)   Reference library

Samuel Jayakumar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... Dalit * convert called Vedamanickam * became his chief catechist. From 1810 , the untouchable Shannar (now Nadar) communities embraced the gospel of Christ, and a number of chapels were built and schools were started. In 1815 , there were 1,019 converts, seven chapels, and twelve native catechists and schoolmasters. Ringeltaube left India once for all in 1816 , but paved the way for a great mass movement among the Nadars in 1817 , when his successor Charles Mead arrived. Ringeltaube's end is shrouded in mystery, but he is remembered for...

London Missionary Society

London Missionary Society   Reference library

D. Arthur Jeyakumar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... India * , Southeast Asia, South and East Africa, and the South Sea islands. One of its mission fields in India was in the former Travancore state, wherein during the middle of nineteenth century, it played a key role in getting the rights for low-caste women such as the Shanars (Nadars) to wear upper-cloth to cover their breasts, which led to the empowerment of women. With a view to make the women converts from the oppressed groups stand on their own legs economically, particularly in India, the LMS started programmes such as weaving, knitting, and embroidery....

Hindu–Christian Movements

Hindu–Christian Movements   Reference library

Roger E. Hedlund

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Christianity. In Tamil Nadu in 1857 , one Arumainayagam Sattampillai broke away from the Anglicans at Nazareth to found the Hindu– Christian Church * , also known as Nattu Sabai * , which incorporated a number of Jewish Old Testament practices along with Hindu rituals and Nadar mythology. At Madras, O. Kandaswamy Chetti , who openly confessed his attachment to Christ but declined baptism, founded the Fellowship of the Followers of Jesus to strengthen the unity of those among the Hindu community who shared an attachment with Christ as the fulfilment of...

Hindu–christian Church (Nattu Sabai)

Hindu–christian Church (Nattu Sabai)   Reference library

Y. Vincent Kumaradoss

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,339 words

...Church (Nattu Sabai) The Hindu–Christian Church of Lord Jesus, founded at Prakasapuram in 1857 , was rooted in a rural setting in Tirunelveli district, a location that constituted a fertile field for the conversion of a large number of Shanars (now known as Nadars) who suffered severe social disabilities and economic deprivation in the indigenous structure. The rapid and extensive growth of Christianity among the Shanars gave rise to specific Christian settlements or ‘towns of refuge’ that accorded protection and offered facilities to search for...

Intersectional Studies

Intersectional Studies   Reference library

Marianne Bjelland Kartzow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,147 words

...oppression parameters are connected and identities are constructed by complex intersections of social categories—has been vibrant in feminist biblical interpretation for several decades, as for example articulated by the Hebrew Bible scholar Sarojini Nadar: “racism is sexism is classism is homophobia” ( Nadar, 2009 , p. 226). What Is Intersectionality? Within recent interdisciplinary research the concept of intersectionality has gained increasing currency. When white Western feminists in the 1960s and 1970s started to criticize male-centrism, their insights...

Historiography and Bibliography: South Asian Christianity

Historiography and Bibliography: South Asian Christianity   Reference library

Chandra Mallampalli

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,641 words

...in Tamil Nadu * observed caste distinctions during mass and other ceremonial contexts. Rather predictably, such accommodation was welcomed by higher ranking Vellala converts, but opposed by lower ranking Parava fishermen, Shanars (toddy tappers, who were later called Nadars), and Pariah groups. Occasionally, tensions between these groups erupted into heated legal disputes. In a recent study on Christians in south India, Chandra Mallampalli documents how the Indian judiciary defined the parameters of Christian identity through litigation concerning...

Religious Regulation in France

Religious Regulation in France   Reference library

Paul Christopher Manuel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,236 words

...less prominent place on Montmartre in 1926, and destroyed in 1941 by the proclerical Vichy collaborationist government. Most recently, in 2001, the Paris City Council voted to place a new statue of Chevalier Lefebvre de la Barre in Montmartre, close to the basilica at the Square Nadar. 15. There was a pro-Catholic political party in the Fourth Republic, known as the Popular Republican Movement ( Mouvement Républicain Populaire ), founded after the war to support Christian values. It was disbanded in 1967. 16. For more information, see Documentation...

karam

karam   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sikh Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Religion
Length:
285 words

...omnipotence and justice. Divine grace ( nadar ) actually breaks the chain of adverse karma. Derived from Arabic sources, the word karam implies ‘gracious action’ in Gurū Nānak ’s fourth realm of mysticism (GGS 8). The difference between the Indic notion of karma and the Sikh articulation within the interlinked terms karam/nadar/hukam boils down to very different concept of time ( kāl ). Karma is certainly important in that it will produce a favourable or unfavourable birth, but it is through divine grace ( nadar ) that the initial opportunity for...

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