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Markellos of Ankyra

Bishop of Ankyra (by 314) and opponent of Arianism; born ca.280, died ca.374. While Markellos (Μάρκελλος) was a stalwart Nicene in 325, his attack a decade later on the Arian ...

Markellos of Ankyra

Markellos of Ankyra   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
323 words

... of Ankyra , bishop of Ankyra (by 314 ) and opponent of Arianism ; born ca. 280 , died ca. 374 . While Markellos (Μάρκελλος) was a stalwart Nicene in 325 , his attack a decade later on the Arian Asterios the Sophist included charges against Eusebios of Caesarea , who responded at once with counteraccusations of Sabellianism . A synod at Constantinople in 336 condemned, deposed, and exiled Markellos. Over the next decade the ensuing theological seesaw had him restored in 337 , deposed in 339 , restored in 343 after proving his orthodoxy to...

Basil of Ankyra

Basil of Ankyra   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
220 words

...of Ankyra , bishop (336–43, 350–60); died Illyria ca. 364 . An erudite and eloquent former physician, Basil was appointed in 336 to replace Markellos as bishop of Ankyra by the synod of Constantinople. He was deposed in 343 , restored after 350 , and finally deposed in 360 and exiled to Illyria. As a moderate Arian , he was caught between the Scylla of his own extremists and the Charybdis of Orthodox opposition. Athanasios of Alexandria ( De synodis 41) confirms his role as leader of the Homoiousians . He played a prominent role in the...

Epideictic

Epideictic   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Elizabeth M. Jeffreys

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
151 words

...in later commentaries on Menander, for example, John Doxopatres ( Rabe , Prolegomenon 150.8), and was evidently replaced by less abstract notions such as enkomion and ekphrasis . The word early acquired the negative connotation of “showing off,” and Eusebios of Caesarea (PG 24:748B) accused Markellos of Ankyra of “showing off Hellenic science and ignoring divine knowledge.” Martin , Rhetorik 177–210. Kennedy , Rhetoric 23–27. Alexander Kazhdan , Elizabeth M....

Anthimos of Nikomedeia

Anthimos of Nikomedeia   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Nancy Patterson Ševčenko

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
222 words

...On the Holy Church , attributed to Anthimos by G. Mercati , is actually a work of Markellos of Ankyra according to Richard ( Opera minora 2, no.33). Representation in Art The earliest known portrait of Anthimos, on a mosaic (now lost) in the south tympanum of Hagia Sophia , apparently showed the saint as an elderly bishop; this is the most usual type, though his features vary. In the Theodore Psalter (fol.95v), he bears witness to the burning of the church in Nikomedeia in which 20,000 Christians are said to have lost their lives. Four scenes enclosed...

Parousia

Parousia   Reference library

Gerhard Podskalsky

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
266 words

.... In his sermon, Cyril criticized Markellos of Ankyra , who denied that Christ would reign “after the end of the world,” since the Logos who had proceeded from the Father and then had returned to him ceased to exist as an individual being. Accordingly, the First Council of Constantinople (see under Constantinople, Councils of ) added to the Confession of Faith a sentence— directed against Markellos—that “the kingdom of Christ will have no end.” Later homilies combined the theme of the Parousia with a portrayal of the Last Judgment and/or Hell or with...

Serdica, Local Council of

Serdica, Local Council of   Reference library

Aristeides Papadakis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
319 words

...Local Council of . Constans I and Constantius II summoned this council in 342 or 343 to settle the dispute that had split the episcopate into two rival camps after the deposition of Athanasios of Alexandria ( 335 ). The two groups met separately because the Eastern semi- Arian party insisted that Athanasios , being deposed, could not participate. The Eastern group therefore confirmed Athanasios's expulsion from his see, condemned Markellos of Ankyra , and excommunicated Pope Julius ( 337–52 ) for supporting both. The creed of this rump synod was...

Monarchianism

Monarchianism   Reference library

Karl-Heinz Uthemann

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
271 words

...and Epigonos (called Praxeas in the West). In the genealogies of heresies so common in Byz., 4th-C. theologians connected Markellos of Ankyra with Monarchianism, while in the 6th C., the same charge was made against Severos of Antioch and the Jacobites . Protestant dogmatists of the 19th and early 20th C. largely overestimated the significance of modalistic Monarchianism and presumed a background of religious ideas directed against the philosophical tradition. M. Simonetti , Sabellio e il sabellianismo , Studi storico-religiosi 4 (1980) 7–28....

Substance

Substance   Reference library

Karl-Heinz Uthemann

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
497 words

...common ousia and the hypostases of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, there is the danger of seeing this essence as a universal, as in the Monarchian interpretation of Markellos of Ankyra modified by Gregory of Nyssa ( R. Hübner in Epektasis: Mélanges Jean Daniélou [Paris 1972 ] 463–90), or of taking it in the sense of the Aristotelian secondary essence as in the tritheism of John Philoponos . Nevertheless, in Basil the Great and Gregory of Nazianzos the concept of ousia as that which is common ( koinon ) is joined with Stoic ontology and...

Eusebios of Caesarea

Eusebios of Caesarea   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
789 words

...attacked the views of Markellos of Ankyra . As a scholar Eusebios was an outstanding systematizer who assembled copious data. His works are devoted primarily to the problems of apologetics and church history. His major apologetic treatises are the voluminous Preparation and Demonstration of the Gospels , both dedicated to the Arian bishop of Syrian Laodikeia, Theodotos . In the Preparation he endeavors to show that “the philosophy and religion of the Hebrews” is more ancient and richer in content than Greco-Roman paganism and exercises a more powerful...

Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit   Reference library

Karl-Heinz Uthemann

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,091 words

...of Alexandria held in 362 , Athanasios argued for an expansion to the Nicaean Creed by condemning those who said that “the Holy Spirit is a creature separate from the essence of Christ” (PG 26:800A). To contemporaries such language approached Sabellianism (see Monarchianism ) ; Markellos of Ankyra , for example, had been misunderstood earlier when he said something similar. A confession concerning the divine nature of the Holy Spirit was formulated for the first time in the theology of Basil and incorporated into the creed of the First Council of...

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