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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and to act against their supreme commander. The increasing number of defeats on all fronts after 1942–3 helped the conspirators to win sympathisers for their cause. More were prepared to follow suit after someone else had successfully attempted a coup d'état . A Berlin joke of 1944 reflects the attitude of the general public: ‘I'd rather believe in victory than run around with my head cut off.’ historiography tries to define different forms of resistance to Nazism: political opposition, social non-conformity, and ideological dissidence. They can...

local legends

local legends   Quick reference

A Dictionary of English Folklore

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...legends . The most common folk narratives in England (apart from jokes) are stories about remarkable events in the history of a particular locality, the supposed origins of its landmarks and place-names, curious features of its buildings, etc. Their contents range across the whole spectrum of traditional themes, from the realistic, through the amazing-but-not-impossible (e.g. the Hangman 's Stone), to supernatural beliefs now outmoded (the Devil , fairies ), or still current ( ghosts , curses ). Some are so plausible that only experience can show...

intelligence, military

intelligence, military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...military Among the hoariest military jokes is that these two words are a contradiction in terms. Military intelligence means information, usually but not exclusively about the enemy, and without both information and the cerebral intelligence to make proper use of it, any commander is halfway to defeat. Among the obstacles that good intelligence must overcome in order to be applied are prejudice, as in US Secretary of State Stimson's statement that ‘gentlemen do not read each other's mail’, preconceptions in the commander's mind that will shut it...

Lǐ Bái

Lǐ Bái (701–762 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,498 words
Illustration(s):
4

...poems about the experience. Du Fu expressed great admiration for Li and spoke of him most warmly later, as in the poem “Thinking of Li Bai on a Day in Spring” 春日忆李白 ‎: Bai, the poet unrivalled, In fancy’s realm you soar alone. One poem allegedly written by Li Bai titled “A Joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This is sometimes seen as Li being condescending to the younger poet. This poem, however, is generally believed to be a fake since...

Dù Fǔ

Dù Fǔ (712–770 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,158 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than the other way around. In fact, one poem by Li Bai to Du Fu has been offered as evidence that Li was condescending to the younger poet: Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This poem “A joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, however, is generally looked at with some skepticism because it appears in a collection of anecdotes about Li and because Li did not have a reputation for using such a condescending tone with his friends. Whatever the nature of their relationship, the fact...

Advertising

Advertising   Reference library

C. Michael HALL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,555 words

...capture and transfer by elements of advertisements. Journal of Marketing , 68 (2), 36–50. Rumbo, Joseph D. (2002). Consumer resistance in a world of advertising clutter: The case of Adbusters. Psychology and Marketing , 19 (2), 127–148. Woodside, Sven . (2001). Every joke is a tiny revolution: Culture jamming and the role of humour. (Master’s thesis). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: University of Amsterdam, Media Studies. Zinkhan, George M. , & Carlson, Les . (1995). Green advertising and the reluctant consumer. Journal of Advertising , 24 (2), 1–4...

Musical theater

Musical theater   Reference library

Geoffrey Block, Kate Van Winkle Keller, Anne Dhu McLucas, Sandra Jean Graham, Orly Leah Krasner, Todd Decker, Paul R. Laird, Jessica Sternfeld, Garrett Eisler, John Koegel, Nancy Rao, Charles Hamm, and William A. Everett

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,860 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Immigrant Scene: Ethnic Amusements in New York, 1880–1920 (Minneapolis, MN, 2008) T. Hischak : The Oxford Companion to the American Musical: Theatre, Film, and Television (New York, 2008) J. Kenrick : Musical Theatre: a History (New York, 2008) S. Patinkin : “No Legs, No Jokes, No Chance”: a History of the American Musical Theatre (Evanston, IL, 2008) J. Koegel : Music in German Immigrant Theater: New York City, 1840–1940 (Rochester, NY, 2009) G.M. Rodger : Champagne Charlie and Pretty Jemima: Variety Theater in the Nineteenth Century (Urbana,...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...upon the social and political position of the actors. The penetrated male: cinaedus or pathicus. The vox propria for the passive partner in anal sex, cinaedus , like its less common synonyms pathicus and catamitus , is of Greek origin and occurs most commonly in coarse joking contexts in epigram, satire, and other invective verse, as well as in Plautine New Comedy. Together the three epithets occur 10 times in Plautus, thrice in Lucilius, 11 times in Catullus, 7 in the Carmina Priapea , 23 in Martial, and 7 in Juvenal. This distribution is not...

Native American music

Native American music   Reference library

Bruno Nettl, Victoria Lindsay Levine, Bryan Burton, Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, and Victoria Lindsay Levine

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
16,585 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Another social dance, the Forty-Nine, takes place late at night after the powwow has ended. In this dance, which is mainly for young people, participants dance in concentric circles around the singers. Humor plays an integral role in American Indian dance events, in public jokes told by a master of ceremonies, in more private interactions among family and friends, and in the performance of dancers known in English as clowns. Operating through symbolic reversals, ceremonial clowns reinforce social expectations by displaying incorrect behavior. Humor lifts...

Garrincha

Garrincha  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(1933–83)A Brazilian soccer player who played in Brazil's World Cup winning sides of 1958 and 1962. The name Garrincha means ‘little bird’, and is often given in Brazil to people with a disability; ...
Garrincha

Garrincha   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
409 words

...Holding Brazil: Football, Nationalism and Politics’, in A. Tomlinson and G. Whannel , eds, Off the Ball: The Football World, Cup 1986 ). ‘Good legs and good luck’ were Garrincha attributes, in the words of Eduardo Galeano , who notes too that the player ‘had fun cracking jokes with his legs’ ( Football in Sun and Shadow , 1997 ). His farewell match in 1973 , between a Brazil side and a World FIFA XI, attracted 131,000 spectators to the Maracanã stadium. Garrincha died of cirrhosis of the liver ten years later, in an alcoholic coma in Rio de Janeiro,...

Hobbes, Thomas

Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679)   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,416 words

...Thomas ( 1588–1679 ) One of the greatest of all political philosophers, the most brilliant and profound ever to have written in English. Hobbes was born in Malmesbury, Wiltshire (he joked that ‘Fear and I were born twins’ because his mother went into labour out of shock at the news of the Spanish Armada) and rescued from an unpromising background by a far‐sighted schoolmaster. Hobbes studied at Oxford, where he learnt a contempt for the philosophy of Plato and, especially, Aristotle that stayed for life. He then joined the family of the Earls (later...

Mascots

Mascots   Reference library

Kendall BLANCHARD

Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
4,184 words

...may be viewed as a substitute for that built-in sense of identity and belonging that characterizes European sport. This may be why people in the United States tend to take their mascots much more seriously than do the Europeans, who “frequently treat their mascots almost as a joke” ( Morris 1981 , 86 ). As US professional sports become more global, however, they are exporting not only the sport but also the mascot. For example, the relatively new European National Football League sports a rather jazzy list of mascot names, including the Fire, Galaxy, and...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,900 words
Illustration(s):
1

...culture of Ghana can be described as a paradox. Sexual matters are among the popular topics for conversation and gossip, but there is less evidence of serious societal debate about sexual issues. Though many cultural artifacts, Ghanaian traditional and “high life” music, dances, jokes, and gibes, are frequently woven around sex, the topic hardly comes into the forefront of any formal discussion, and blunt questions about sexual matters may encounter opposition. It must be stated that Ghanaian sexual mores, as elsewhere in Africa, can be well understood if one...

Kenya

Kenya   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,187 words
Illustration(s):
2

...[ Update 2003 : The concept of sexual harassment is not Kenyan, and there is no vocabulary for sexual harassment in the local languages. So many times, this will be swept under the rug as the issue arises. Yet, there are so many unwelcome sexual behaviors, insults, remarks and jokes, unwanted physical contacts, requests, and even threats that create daily discrimination against so many women, particularly in Kenyan universities. In these universities, harassment occurs all the time. For example, women students are being groped and fondled as they queue for...

Croatia

Croatia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,611 words
Illustration(s):
1

...behavior of older people, and none on the sexuality of disabled persons. In addition, these topics are never even touched upon by the media and they remain completely invisible. The only information about the social perception of older people's sexuality can be found in the jokes that circulate in public. All of them, but especially those involving older female characters, reflect extremely youth-centered, prejudicial, and negative attitudes. [ Update 2002 : As previously mentioned, the Croatian Association of Societies of Persons with Mental Handicap...

Botswana

Botswana   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
8,454 words
Illustration(s):
1

...there is intense stimulation by the male partner on the woman's labia and clitoral regions. This stimulation results in copious production of secretions (thought to come from Bartholin's glands). People talk about it openly, sometimes mixed with a sense of humor and intertribe jokes. Some researchers have blamed this practice for the high incidence and prevalence of HIV and STDs. The implications of this kind of information for action plans (resource inputs and sociocultural issues) are enormous. Now that these behaviors have been brought into public...

Tanzania

Tanzania   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
11,262 words
Illustration(s):
1

...there is intense stimulation by the male partner on the woman's labia and clitoral regions. This stimulation results in copious production of secretions (thought to come from Bartholin's glands). People talk about it openly, sometimes mixed with a sense of humor and intertribe jokes. Some researchers have blamed this practice for the high incidence and prevalence of HIV and STDs. The implications of this kind of information for action plans (resource inputs and sociocultural issues) are enormous. Now that these behaviors have been brought into public...

Nigeria

Nigeria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
30,636 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is intense stimulation by the male partner on the woman's labia and clitoral regions. This stimulation results in copious production of secretions (thought to come from the Bartholin's glands). People talk about it openly, sometimes mixed with a sense of humor and intertribal jokes. Some researchers have blamed this practice for the high incidence and prevalence of HIV and STDs. The implications of this kind of information for action plans (resource inputs and sociocultural issues) are enormous. Now that these behaviors have been brought into public...

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
11,264 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Diaz Perez 1985 ). Sexual Harassment This is a relatively new concept that has not been widely accepted in Puertorican society. Most people believe that these are the natural behavioral patterns in the relationships between men and women ( Alvarado 1987 ). Sexual innuendoes, jokes, and repeatedly asking for dates are all expected in male-female interactions ( Martinez et al 1988 ). Recent studies have found harassment rates of 44% among women attending a conference on women in the workplace, to as high as 73% for women working in the healthcare sector...

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