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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

Religious Orders

Religious Orders   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,745 words

...to a wide range of criticism. Many humanists, above all Desiderius Erasmus , derided their formalism, sloth, and attachment to pettifogging scholasticism. Vernacular writers from Boccaccio and Chaucer to Sebastian Brant and Marguerite d'Angoulême made the friars the butts of jokes. The criticism sometimes reflected prejudice but often rested on solid ground and was shared by bishops, who resented the papal exemptions from ordinary church jurisdiction that the orders enjoyed. In 1537 the famous reform commission set up by Paul III argued that all the...

Festivals

Festivals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,763 words

...repentance. The wealthier members of confraternities sometimes hired substitutes for this part of the proceedings. There was also a joyful element in the celebration of the resurrection, including what was known as “Easter laughter” ( risus paschalis ), the custom of ritualized joking in church. Corpus Christi Another favorite occasion for religious processions, pageants, and plays took place in June, the Feast of Corpus Christi. Focused on the body of Christ in the Host, this feast became increasingly popular in the later Middle Ages. It began in the city of...

Anticlericalism

Anticlericalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,781 words

...and rural areas, in city council chambers, in the chancelleries of the territorial princes, and at meetings of the Reichstag (e.g., Gravamina nationis germaniae ). The theme of anticlericalism was also taken up in literary works and the visual arts, as well as in popular songs, jokes, moral sayings, mocking verses, and fairy tales. Anticlericalism can be traced to various causes: (1) to the moral failure of those who, in their own minds, represented Christian perfection; (2) to the privileges of legal immunity, freedom from taxation, and supervisory rights...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...und Staatsbildung: Eine Fallstudie über das Verhältnis von religiösem und sozialem Wandel in der Frühneuzeit am Beispiel der Grafschaft Lippe . Gütersloh, 1981. ——. Religion, Political Culture, and the Emergence of the Early Modern State . Leiden, 1992. Spaans, Joke . Haarlem na de Reformatie: Stedelijke Cultuur en Kerkelijk Leven, 1577–1620 . The Hague, 1989. Steinmetz, David . Luther in Context . Bloomington, Ind., 1986. Tukker, C. A. De Classis Dordrecht van 1573 tot 1609 . Leiden, 1965. Visser, Derk , ed. Controversy and...

Sexual Transgression

Sexual Transgression   Reference library

Diana M. Swancutt, Hilary Lipka, Rosanna S. Omitowoju, Heather Vincent, Benjamin H. Dunning, Laliv Clenman, and Taylor G. Petrey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30,174 words

...upon the social and political position of the actors. The penetrated male: cinaedus or pathicus. The vox propria for the passive partner in anal sex, cinaedus , like its less common synonyms pathicus and catamitus , is of Greek origin and occurs most commonly in coarse joking contexts in epigram, satire, and other invective verse, as well as in Plautine New Comedy. Together the three epithets occur 10 times in Plautus, thrice in Lucilius, 11 times in Catullus, 7 in the Carmina Priapea , 23 in Martial, and 7 in Juvenal. This distribution is not...

Crop Circles

Crop Circles   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
954 words

...leap in the evolution and complexity of the designs and an increase in media attention. For many, the mystery of crop circles was solved in 1991 when two English sexagenarians, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley , announced that they had invented the whole phenomenon as a joke and had themselves created over 250 formations. Despite this and the appearance of other hoax claimants over the years, crop formations of growing sophistication and size have continued to be discovered, leaving many convinced that there is an unexplained force at work. Today one...

William of Champeaux

William of Champeaux (c.1079–1122)   Reference library

Kevin Guilfoy

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
1,416 words

... In these fragments, Aug. is by far W.'s most frequently cited and most significant authoritative source, apart from Scripture. Gregory the Great and Jerome are the only other non-biblical authorities cited, and they are only mentioned infrequently. Only one of Aug.'s works, De Genesi ad litteram , is cited by name (LV 43). W. repeats Aug.'s joke from Confessions (11.12.14), writing that before he created the world, God must have been devising plans...

Resistance, Passive

Resistance, Passive   Reference library

L. Juliana Claassens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,553 words

...are associated with a specific social context and with a particular group of actors. Moreover, these hidden transcripts are not just confined to speech acts but to a whole range of practices, consisting of actions such as rumors, gossip, stories, songs, rituals, euphemisms, and jokes that are hidden or concealed from those in power but that serve as a powerful avenue to voice dissent among people in subordinated positions ( Scott, 1990 , p. 14). For instance, Scott identifies the subtle use of codes in African American Spirituals to Joshua and Moses (e.g.,...

Beethoven, Ludwig van

Beethoven, Ludwig van   Reference library

Birgit Lodes and Johanna M. Baboukis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
3,416 words

...choir singing the Lamentations of Jeremiah on the piano (the organ not being used during Lent; Wegeler and Ries, 1988 , p. 20). Beethoven harmonized the chorale so audaciously that his accompaniment threw the singer Ferdinand Heller off track—and he had written out this musical joke beforehand, as documented in Beethoven’s so-called Kafka Sketchbook. Beethoven in Vienna, the First 20 Years (1792–1812). With Beethoven’s move to Vienna, the main focus of his work changed. There is hardly anything more for organ, but he further built his reputation as an...

Rap and Hip-Hop Music

Rap and Hip-Hop Music   Reference library

Brent A. Strawn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
7,982 words

...of rap to the praise of God). In many cases, especially in conscious rap, the entities that are marked for destruction are not specific individuals (let alone competitors) but systemic societal evils like poverty or racism (e.g., Public Enemy, “Burn Hollywood Burn” and “911 Is a Joke,” Fear of a Black Planet , Def Jam Recordings and Columbia Records, 1990 ). A particularly intriguing aspect of rap’s poetic form—both lyrically and instrumentally—is the way it abounds in reuse of prior materials and allusion to the same. Hip-hop’s not infrequent citation of...

Theology of Law

Theology of Law   Reference library

Joel N. Lohr, Thomas Kazen, and Jonathan Wyn Schofer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
24,573 words

...among systematic accounts, but to many contextually specific teachings. Of course the same might be said also for a theology of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament or of the New Testament. We have to assess, then, whether or not a given passage is serious or parody, sincere or joking, literal or figurative: In what sense did the rabbis believe or adhere to their theological statements, particularly regarding God’s miracles in the world (both in biblical times and in the rabbis’ present) and God’s body, emotions, and actions? If we assert that all ancient...

Marriage and the Family

Marriage and the Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
10,158 words

...so insultingly and foolishly laugh, mock, and treat it with similar foolishness,” as Luther put it in his 1529 Book of Advice and Consolation for the Simple Pastor . 26 The ordinances stress that weddings were to be celebrated solemnly and reverently, without wild drinking or jokes and rituals that celebrated and satirized the sexual aspects of marriage. Wedding sermons should emphasize the duties of the spouses toward one another and toward God. Though Luther himself blessed several wedding beds, this practice was generally discouraged by Protestants, as...

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