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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

memes

memes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,008 words

...but having no children means he can devote his time and resources to spreading the memes of his religion, including celibacy. So the meme for celibacy succeeds. Apart from religions, other viral memes include alternative therapies that do not work, new-age fads and cults, and astrology, which is immensely popular even though most of its claims have been shown to be false. Children's games, jokes, and urban legends also spread infectiously, and epidemiological methods can be used to study them. The vast majority of memes are not viruses but are the very...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,229 words
Illustration(s):
1

...catalog, Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts, University of California, Los Angeles. Freud, Sigmund . The Uncanny. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , vol. 17, pp. 217–252. London, 1955. Freud, Sigmund . Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious . In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , vol. 8. London, 1960. Hannoosh, Michele . Baudelaire and Caricature: From the Comic to an Art of Modernity . University Park, Pa.,...

Caribbean Aesthetics

Caribbean Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,111 words

...great popularity are reggae (Jamaica), the plena (Puerto Rico), the cumbia (Colombia), the joropo (Venezuela), and the Dominican merengue . The literary arts also have great importance in the region. Afro-Caribbean oral literature includes myths, folktales, proverbs, jokes, and spells. Among the most often mentioned folktales are the stories of Anancy (a spider man) and Jicotea (a turtle man), which find their respective referents in West African cultures. Written literature embraces all genres and has attained unique forms in the marvelous...

Freud, Sigmund

Freud, Sigmund   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,329 words

...of the arts and their complex structures. In this regard should be mentioned Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious ( 1905 ), the first attempt to apply the psychoanalytic mode of thought to the problems of aesthetics. Jokes can be considered miniature narratives that employ all of the psychic processes outlined above in the introduction to Freud's theory. Condensation, displacement, and symbolic transformations of reality and of fantasy occur in jokes, and the book is to be recommended as a set of cultural experiments—as if the reader is...

Duchamp, Marcel

Duchamp, Marcel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,266 words

...conditions of art. Duchamp uncovered the difficulty of deciding where to locate the demarcation. A bicycle wheel chosen ready-made and mounted on a stool can be taken simultaneously as a substantial challenge to accepted artistic practice or dismissed as an inconsequential joke. These kinds of antinomies are not easily reconciled. Contingency fascinated Duchamp, and he provided questions, not answers. He challenged the surety of modernism, and his methods exemplify the crosscurrent of avant-garde resistance that brushes against the grain of modernism...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,954 words

...how the modern and more unified concept of genius and creativity came into existence. 1. Mantike . The word mantike refers to a state of being possessed by something divine and immortal, or to some other access to divine communication. In the Phaedrus , Plato has Socrates joke about the connection of the manic , which was (and is) the name for a kind of madness, and the mantic , which was a name for the condition that prophets and poets habitually found themselves in ( Phaedrus , 244c–e). Plato seems to have taken the lead in understanding poets and...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,764 words
Illustration(s):
1

...how the metaphoric mode of expression of the contents of certain beliefs must be taken into account in order to show how they explain actions. Recent work on the noncognitive significance of metaphors (e.g., by Cohen, on creating a sense of intimacy), and their relation to jokes and riddles, also promises to illuminate other cognitive aspects of metaphor, for example, their sense of surprise. Although we are still far from possessing good answers to these many questions, the questions themselves exemplify how the study of metaphor, enriched and deepened...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Michèle Hannoosh

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,272 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... “Das Passagen-Werk.” In Gesammelte Schriften , edited by Rolf  Tiedemann , Vol. 5. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1982. Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts . French Caricature and the French Revolution, 1789–1799 . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Freud, Sigmund . “Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud , edited by James Strachey , Vol. 8. London: Hogarth, 1960. Freud, Sigmund . “The Uncanny.” In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund...

Caribbean Aesthetics

Caribbean Aesthetics   Reference library

Antonio Benítez-Rojo and R. Kelly Washbourne

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,209 words

...great popularity are reggae (Jamaica), the plena (Puerto Rico), the cumbia (Colombia), the joropo (Venezuela), and the Dominican merengue. The literary arts also have great importance in the region. Afro-Caribbean oral literature includes myths, folktales, proverbs, jokes, and spells. Among the most often mentioned folktales are the stories of Anancy (a spider man) and Jicotea (a turtle man), which find their respective referents in West African cultures. Written literature embraces all genres and has attained unique forms in the “marvelous...

Postdramatic Theater

Postdramatic Theater   Reference library

Elinor Fuchs

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,547 words
Illustration(s):
1

...recited with deliberate lack of affect by a single actor sitting upstage. In another notable instance of postdramatic use of a dramatic text, Lee Breuer’s production of Ibsen’s A Dollhouse , as The Mabou Mines Dollhouse ( 2003 ), with its freak show references, wild dances, jokes, direct address to the audience, falling melodrama silks, opera riffs, and live pianist winking at the actors who in turn wink at the audience, fit many criteria of Lehmann’s postdramatic. With characters, plot, a strong sequential story line, and a delivery almost entirely in...

Sontag, Susan

Sontag, Susan (1933–2004)   Reference library

Sohnya Sayres

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,268 words

...them, simply offensive? Sontag was apt to point out in these years that moral rules are not that complicated. Can there be an art that is “tactless”? Aggressive, assaultive, confined to a singular passion (as in her defense of pornography as literature), but not as a tasteless joke? Her remarks on Diane Arbus’s photographs reveal her discomfiture when serious artwork flirts with such material. Can art be apathetic? By the time Sontag is writing Regarding the Pain of Others ( 2003 ), her own antiwar statement, she does not humor the question. “The only...

Freud, Sigmund

Freud, Sigmund   Reference library

Margaret P. Kuhns, Richard Kuhns, Beau Shaw, Ellen Handler Spitz, Marcia Cavell, and Stuart Feder

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,655 words

...understanding of the arts and their complex structures. In this regard should be mentioned Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious ( 1905 ), the first attempt to apply the psychoanalytic mode of thought to the problems of aesthetics. Jokes can be considered miniature narratives that employ all of the psychic processes outlined above in the introduction to Freud’s theory. Condensation, displacement, and symbolic transformations of reality and fantasy occur in jokes, and the book is to be recommended as a set of cultural experiments—as if the reader is...

Postmodernism

Postmodernism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz, Sally Banes, and Charles Altieri

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,080 words
Illustration(s):
1

...flow of life itself. Architecture could hardly survive indefinitely on a joking style, and it tended to move in a variety of directions in accord with Venturi’s injunctions: to build contextually in terms of local vernaculars, in terms of the desires of local patrons, the specific needs of cities, towns, and distinctive populations, etc.; to play the game of stylistic juxtaposition and pluralism; and to retain the game of high modernist send-up (turning it into a somewhat stale joke). Architecture also continued modernist stylistics in a number of ways,...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Timothy Gould and Christine Battersby

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,926 words

...the modern and more unified concept of genius and creativity came into existence. 1. Mantike . The word “ mantike ” refers to a state of a human being who is possessed by something divine and immortal, or to some other access to divine communication. In the Phaedrus , Socrates jokes about the connection of the manic , which is still the name for a kind of madness, and the mantic , which was a name for the condition that prophets and poets habitually find themselves in ( Phaedrus , 1961 , 244c–e). Plato seems to have taken the lead in understanding poets...

Carroll, Lewis

Carroll, Lewis (1832–98)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
3,848 words

...geometry. This book cost him much labour and, despite its serious purpose, he wrote it as a ‘four act’ set of dialogues displaying the kind of wit usually associated with his pseudonym. It is probably a mistake to regard this as a frivolous eccentricity because his use of jokes in his writings for children appears to have been a consciously adopted device for instilling in them a sensitivity to subtleties of language of central importance to academic arguments. The first edition sold out in six weeks and it was reprinted in 1973 . A surprising feature...

altered state of consciousness

altered state of consciousness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,457 words

...be, but there are cases of obvious conflict with how things appear from the outside—think of the staggering drunk with slurred speech who claims to be perfectly sober and about to drive his car, or the first‐time marijuana user who grins uncontrollably and giggles at the feeblest joke while claiming to feel no effect. In these cases we may think that an objective definition would be more useful. Even in cases where the person's own words seem the best guide there are problems. For example some states, such as mystical experiences, are said to be ineffable—that...

Resistance, Passive

Resistance, Passive   Reference library

L. Juliana Claassens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
2,553 words

...are associated with a specific social context and with a particular group of actors. Moreover, these hidden transcripts are not just confined to speech acts but to a whole range of practices, consisting of actions such as rumors, gossip, stories, songs, rituals, euphemisms, and jokes that are hidden or concealed from those in power but that serve as a powerful avenue to voice dissent among people in subordinated positions ( Scott, 1990 , p. 14). For instance, Scott identifies the subtle use of codes in African American Spirituals to Joshua and Moses (e.g.,...

SIGNIFIER

SIGNIFIER   Reference library

Barbara Cassin, Frédérique Ildefonse, Carita Klippi, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
10,849 words

...as a recentering on the signifier, linked to dreams (“from the first chapter of the Traumdeutung , [Freud] brings to the forefront that the dream is a rebus , and no one notices it” [ Le séminaire , Livre 4: La relation d’objet , 294]), to jokes (“it does not appear to have been noticed that the analysis of jokes begins with the diagram of the analysis of a phenomenon of condensation, the word famillionaire , a fabrication based on the signifier, via the superimposition of familiar and millionaire ” [ibid.]). The signifier or, more precisely,...

TRUTH

TRUTH   Reference library

Rémi Brague, Barbara Cassin, Sandra Laugier, Alain de Libera, Irène Rosier-Catach, and Michèle Sinapi

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
21,527 words

... Dallas Willard in Early Writings in the Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics (Hua vol. 5). Dordrecht, Neth.: Kluwer, 1993. John XXI (Peter of Spain). Syncategoreumata . First critical edition with an introduction and indexes by L. M. de Rijk ; with an English translation by Joke Spruyt . Leiden, Neth,: E. J. Brill, 1991. Kirk, G. S. , J. E. Raven , and M. Schofield . The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm . New Essays on Human...

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