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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

Phrasal Verb

Phrasal Verb   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,955 words

...literally in The milkman brought in the milk , figuratively in The prime minister brought in a new policy . Only in the second sense can bring in be matched with introduce (itself originally metaphorical in Latin): not * The milkman introduced the milk , unless a joke is intended. Jokes and cartoons are often based on a deliberate confusion of phrasal-verb meanings: as when someone says, ‘ Put the kettle on ’ (taken to mean heat some water in a kettle for tea), then notes with appreciation, ‘Mmm, it suits you’ (crossing over to putting on clothes and...

Scots

Scots   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
4,432 words

...or restore the full Scots of a dwindling minority of rural speakers to its former central position. Even after its 20c renaissance, Scots remains restricted to a narrow sphere of literary uses and it makes only a marginal appearance in the media, in comic strips, cartoons, jokes and columns in the popular and local press. None the less, although English is dominant, it remains permeated with features from Scots. Pronunciation (1) Like other Northern dialects, Scots displays the results of many early divergences from the Midland and Southern dialects of...

Verbal Play

Verbal Play   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,356 words

...of the set-up; “getting” or understanding the joke consists of relating the punch line to the unstated assumptions. A typology of jokes involves both form and content. Riddle jokes—common among children but also found in adults—consist of a question posed to a listener, followed by an answer provided by the original questioner (when, as is typically the case, the listener does not know it). Narrative jokes, common among adults, consist of a short narrative that ends in a surprising punch line. Dirty or obscene jokes, which might contain scatological or otherwise...

Discourse

Discourse   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
13,244 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of framing . Bateson points out that no message (the meaning of words or utterances) can be interpreted without reference to a metamessage about the frame. For example, any utterance can mean the opposite of what it says if the speaker is operating in a frame of play, irony, joking, or teasing. A formidable, multi-layered schema for frame analysis is presented by Goffman 1974 . IS sees the language produced in interaction as the means for accomplishing continual shifts in footing among participants (Goffman 1981 , Tannen and Wallat 1987 ). Another key...

Linguistics and Literature

Linguistics and Literature   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
28,004 words

...and Literature Language of Prose Fiction Language of Poetry Language of Drama Language and Literary History ] Stylistics Literary stylistics is the study of the aesthetic use of language, both in texts that are predominantly aesthetic—canonical literature, oral narrative, jokes, etc.—and in texts with other predominant aims, e.g. conversation. As such, stylistics contributes to the study of literary discourse (Kinneavy 1971 ) and parallels the study of verbal texture in other discourse varieties (e.g. Crystal and Davy 1969 ). Stylistics mediates...

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