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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

Religious Orders

Religious Orders   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,745 words

...to a wide range of criticism. Many humanists, above all Desiderius Erasmus , derided their formalism, sloth, and attachment to pettifogging scholasticism. Vernacular writers from Boccaccio and Chaucer to Sebastian Brant and Marguerite d'Angoulême made the friars the butts of jokes. The criticism sometimes reflected prejudice but often rested on solid ground and was shared by bishops, who resented the papal exemptions from ordinary church jurisdiction that the orders enjoyed. In 1537 the famous reform commission set up by Paul III argued that all the...

Festivals

Festivals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,763 words

...repentance. The wealthier members of confraternities sometimes hired substitutes for this part of the proceedings. There was also a joyful element in the celebration of the resurrection, including what was known as “Easter laughter” ( risus paschalis ), the custom of ritualized joking in church. Corpus Christi Another favorite occasion for religious processions, pageants, and plays took place in June, the Feast of Corpus Christi. Focused on the body of Christ in the Host, this feast became increasingly popular in the later Middle Ages. It began in the city of...

Clubs and Societies

Clubs and Societies   Reference library

George W. Boudreau

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the buttocks of one of the jesters. A few nights later, the men took Rees into a cellar, where they spilled burning liquor on him, causing burns so severe that they led to his death a few days later. Eventually, a jury would order that Dr Jones be branded for the fatal practical joke he had played on the young would-be mason. The fallout from Rees’s death was just one of many challenges to freemasonry’s power in the mid-eighteenth century. On January 7, 1751 , the Boston Evening-Post ran an engraving depicting one man sodomizing another with a club...

Anticlericalism

Anticlericalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,781 words

...and rural areas, in city council chambers, in the chancelleries of the territorial princes, and at meetings of the Reichstag (e.g., Gravamina nationis germaniae ). The theme of anticlericalism was also taken up in literary works and the visual arts, as well as in popular songs, jokes, moral sayings, mocking verses, and fairy tales. Anticlericalism can be traced to various causes: (1) to the moral failure of those who, in their own minds, represented Christian perfection; (2) to the privileges of legal immunity, freedom from taxation, and supervisory rights...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...und Staatsbildung: Eine Fallstudie über das Verhältnis von religiösem und sozialem Wandel in der Frühneuzeit am Beispiel der Grafschaft Lippe . Gütersloh, 1981. ——. Religion, Political Culture, and the Emergence of the Early Modern State . Leiden, 1992. Spaans, Joke . Haarlem na de Reformatie: Stedelijke Cultuur en Kerkelijk Leven, 1577–1620 . The Hague, 1989. Steinmetz, David . Luther in Context . Bloomington, Ind., 1986. Tukker, C. A. De Classis Dordrecht van 1573 tot 1609 . Leiden, 1965. Visser, Derk , ed. Controversy and...

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