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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and to act against their supreme commander. The increasing number of defeats on all fronts after 1942–3 helped the conspirators to win sympathisers for their cause. More were prepared to follow suit after someone else had successfully attempted a coup d'état . A Berlin joke of 1944 reflects the attitude of the general public: ‘I'd rather believe in victory than run around with my head cut off.’ historiography tries to define different forms of resistance to Nazism: political opposition, social non-conformity, and ideological dissidence. They can...

intelligence, military

intelligence, military   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...military Among the hoariest military jokes is that these two words are a contradiction in terms. Military intelligence means information, usually but not exclusively about the enemy, and without both information and the cerebral intelligence to make proper use of it, any commander is halfway to defeat. Among the obstacles that good intelligence must overcome in order to be applied are prejudice, as in US Secretary of State Stimson's statement that ‘gentlemen do not read each other's mail’, preconceptions in the commander's mind that will shut it...

Lǐ Bái

Lǐ Bái (701–762 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,498 words
Illustration(s):
4

...poems about the experience. Du Fu expressed great admiration for Li and spoke of him most warmly later, as in the poem “Thinking of Li Bai on a Day in Spring” 春日忆李白 ‎: Bai, the poet unrivalled, In fancy’s realm you soar alone. One poem allegedly written by Li Bai titled “A Joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This is sometimes seen as Li being condescending to the younger poet. This poem, however, is generally believed to be a fake since...

Dù Fǔ

Dù Fǔ (712–770 ce)   Reference library

Tao Tao LIU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,158 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than the other way around. In fact, one poem by Li Bai to Du Fu has been offered as evidence that Li was condescending to the younger poet: Since we last met, you have become too thin, It must be that you worked too hard upon your poems. (Translation by the author) This poem “A joke for Du Fu” 戏赠杜甫 ‎, however, is generally looked at with some skepticism because it appears in a collection of anecdotes about Li and because Li did not have a reputation for using such a condescending tone with his friends. Whatever the nature of their relationship, the fact...

Farrell, Roberto (Bobby) Alfonso

Farrell, Roberto (Bobby) Alfonso (1949–2010)   Reference library

Gregory Richardson

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,113 words

...was particularly known for his charismatic dancing and flamboyant style. Furthermore, his multilingual abilities and humor made him a popular figure, since he could identify and communicate with diverse audiences. Family and friends called him payaso (clown) in reference to his joking personality. Roberto “Bobby” Alfonso Farrell . Photo © Erwin Winkelman/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-NC-SA. Bobby, as he is most commonly known, was the first and most popular male performer of the famous European-based 1970s disco/pop group Boney M. Together with the Jamaicans Liz...

bishop

bishop   Reference library

Michael Williams

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Nola . Nevertheless, ‘senatorial bishops’ remained rare in the West outside Gaul . Most bishops belonged to the civic aristocracy ; others had undistinguished or even servile origins. Bishops were generally respectable, but the pagan senator Praetextatus was certainly joking when he contemplated becoming Bishop of Rome. Within the community The bishop’s unrenounceable role was that of priest: celebrating the liturgy , administering the sacraments, and preaching sermons . He provided his community with access to the divine. The anxiety that arose...

Sobers, Garfield St. Auburn

Sobers, Garfield St. Auburn (1936– )   Reference library

Pedro L. V. Welch

Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,010 words

...the Australian team in their tour of the West Indies. However, after this excellent performance, the fortunes of the team began to wane as the stars of the 1950s retired from the game. It was not surprising that in these changed circumstances Sobers became the butt of unsavory jokes and unfair criticism. In 1968 , during the West Indies tour of Australia, Sobers was absent during an important pre-Test game. It appeared that he had traveled to Melbourne to see Prue Kirby, a woman in whom he had developed an interest. He was severely criticized in Australia...

Religious Orders

Religious Orders   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,745 words

...to a wide range of criticism. Many humanists, above all Desiderius Erasmus , derided their formalism, sloth, and attachment to pettifogging scholasticism. Vernacular writers from Boccaccio and Chaucer to Sebastian Brant and Marguerite d'Angoulême made the friars the butts of jokes. The criticism sometimes reflected prejudice but often rested on solid ground and was shared by bishops, who resented the papal exemptions from ordinary church jurisdiction that the orders enjoyed. In 1537 the famous reform commission set up by Paul III argued that all the...

Festivals

Festivals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,763 words

...repentance. The wealthier members of confraternities sometimes hired substitutes for this part of the proceedings. There was also a joyful element in the celebration of the resurrection, including what was known as “Easter laughter” ( risus paschalis ), the custom of ritualized joking in church. Corpus Christi Another favorite occasion for religious processions, pageants, and plays took place in June, the Feast of Corpus Christi. Focused on the body of Christ in the Host, this feast became increasingly popular in the later Middle Ages. It began in the city of...

Clubs and Societies

Clubs and Societies   Reference library

George W. Boudreau

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the buttocks of one of the jesters. A few nights later, the men took Rees into a cellar, where they spilled burning liquor on him, causing burns so severe that they led to his death a few days later. Eventually, a jury would order that Dr Jones be branded for the fatal practical joke he had played on the young would-be mason. The fallout from Rees’s death was just one of many challenges to freemasonry’s power in the mid-eighteenth century. On January 7, 1751 , the Boston Evening-Post ran an engraving depicting one man sodomizing another with a club...

Anticlericalism

Anticlericalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,781 words

...and rural areas, in city council chambers, in the chancelleries of the territorial princes, and at meetings of the Reichstag (e.g., Gravamina nationis germaniae ). The theme of anticlericalism was also taken up in literary works and the visual arts, as well as in popular songs, jokes, moral sayings, mocking verses, and fairy tales. Anticlericalism can be traced to various causes: (1) to the moral failure of those who, in their own minds, represented Christian perfection; (2) to the privileges of legal immunity, freedom from taxation, and supervisory rights...

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita   Reference library

Natasha S. Varner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to normalize the performance of indigeneity by non-indigenous actors. María Conesa, a Spanish-born diva on the Mexican género chica circuit, depicted the India Bonita in a bawdy tanda show that premiered about a month into the contest. The show—a tribute peppered with off-color jokes 22 —was so well received that Conesa was ultimately honored alongside María Bibiana in her coronation as the India Bonita. 23 Because indigenous identity had been reduced to a few symbols and characteristics throughout the pageant, it was easier for people like Conesa to...

Magistracy

Magistracy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
15,074 words

...und Staatsbildung: Eine Fallstudie über das Verhältnis von religiösem und sozialem Wandel in der Frühneuzeit am Beispiel der Grafschaft Lippe . Gütersloh, 1981. ——. Religion, Political Culture, and the Emergence of the Early Modern State . Leiden, 1992. Spaans, Joke . Haarlem na de Reformatie: Stedelijke Cultuur en Kerkelijk Leven, 1577–1620 . The Hague, 1989. Steinmetz, David . Luther in Context . Bloomington, Ind., 1986. Tukker, C. A. De Classis Dordrecht van 1573 tot 1609 . Leiden, 1965. Visser, Derk , ed. Controversy and...

Santa Anna and His Legacy

Santa Anna and His Legacy   Reference library

Will Fowler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
9,855 words

...simply not around long enough to give direction and authority to his ministers’ reforms. It also became apparent that notwithstanding Trigueros’s impressive results at collecting taxes, Santa Anna and his cronies displayed a tendency to spend what was not theirs on themselves. The joke that Santa Anna’s bronze statue in the Plaza del Velador was pointing at the treasury because he was planning on embezzling its funds dates from these years. During these years the constituent congress of 1842, which drafted a federal charter that was never adopted, was closed down...

Humor

Humor   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...centuries. They stand apart from folktales, which rely much more heavily on narrative detail. A third argument is that the joke is different from the jest and is the product of modern mass media and its needs for short, detail-free, stripped-down comic products; the joke does not appear until the rise of vaudeville and modern show business in the 1870s. In the latter case, topicality of jokes and the need for constant updating of subject matter while preserving form and structure is seen as specific to the modern idea of the joke. Humor plays important...

Phaedrus or Phaeder, Gaius Julius

Phaedrus or Phaeder, Gaius Julius   Quick reference

Alessandro Schiesaro

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
450 words

...and suffered some unknown punishment. Scarcely noticed by Roman writers (he is not mentioned by either Seneca the Younger or Quintilian in their references to fable), he is first named (though identification is uncertain) by Martial (3. 20. 5 improbi iocos Phaedri , ‘the jokes of mischievous Ph.’) and next by Avianus ( praefat. ). Prose paraphrases of his and of other fables were made in later centuries, in particular the collection entitled ‘Romulus’, and in the Middle Ages enjoyed a great vogue. The five books are clearly incomplete and thirty further...

Phaedrus

Phaedrus (4)   Reference library

Alessandro Schiesaro

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
518 words

...punishment. Scarcely noticed by Roman writers (he is not mentioned by either L. Annaeus Seneca (2) (the younger Seneca ) or Quintilian in their references to fable), he is first named (though identification is uncertain) by Martial (3. 20. 5 improbi iocos Phaedri , ‘the jokes of mischievous Ph.’) and next by Avianus ( praefat .). Prose paraphrases of his and of other fables were made in later centuries, in particular the collection entitled ‘Romulus’, and in the Middle Ages enjoyed a great vogue. The five books are clearly incomplete and thirty...

historical fiction

historical fiction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
818 words

...to focus on history as experienced from below through its impact on everyday lives. Joyce's Stephen Dedalus called history ‘a nightmare from which I am trying to awaken’; Birchwood ( 1973 ) by John Banville has been described as presenting Irish history as an enormous black joke. The Scottian tradition has, however, survived and even been revivified by greater willingness to face up to pain, loss, and defeat. Significant historical fictions have continued to be produced, whether in support of accepted self‐images ( W. F. Marshall , Planted by a River (...

Negro History Week/Month

Negro History Week/Month   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
844 words

...and that without its continuance as Black History Month Americans would be all too likely to accept blacks as part of the present national experience without thinking about the long preceding period. It is also still extremely important in fighting racial stereotypes that films, jokes, and sociological studies show still exist. References to white supremacy and the Ku Klux Klan more than doubled in leading national magazines in the 1990s. [ See also Education ; Journal of Negro History ; Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture ; and Woodson, Carter...

comedy (Greek), Old

comedy (Greek), Old   Reference library

Kenneth James Dover

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,344 words

...had cast her. Lysistrata is in many ways unrealistic. Can an old woman really intimidate a policeman? As for the sex-strike, did not the men own female slaves? Didn't any of these ‘sex-starved’ men realize their ‘gay’ potential, as they do in many modern jokes about soldiers and sailors, and ancient jokes too, e.g. Eubulus fr. 118? 4, The comic possibilities of the hero's realization of his fantasy are often exploited by showing, in a succession of short episodes, the consequences of this realization for various professions and types. The end of the play is...

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