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Joking Apart

A: Alan Ayckbourn Pf: 1978, Scarborough Pb: 1979 G: Com. in ...

bishop

bishop   Reference library

Michael Williams

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of Nola . Nevertheless, ‘senatorial bishops’ remained rare in the West outside Gaul . Most bishops belonged to the civic aristocracy ; others had undistinguished or even servile origins. Bishops were generally respectable, but the pagan senator Praetextatus was certainly joking when he contemplated becoming Bishop of Rome. Within the community The bishop’s unrenounceable role was that of priest: celebrating the liturgy , administering the sacraments, and preaching sermons . He provided his community with access to the divine. The anxiety that arose...

Phaedrus or Phaeder, Gaius Julius

Phaedrus or Phaeder, Gaius Julius   Quick reference

Alessandro Schiesaro

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
450 words

...and suffered some unknown punishment. Scarcely noticed by Roman writers (he is not mentioned by either Seneca the Younger or Quintilian in their references to fable), he is first named (though identification is uncertain) by Martial (3. 20. 5 improbi iocos Phaedri , ‘the jokes of mischievous Ph.’) and next by Avianus ( praefat. ). Prose paraphrases of his and of other fables were made in later centuries, in particular the collection entitled ‘Romulus’, and in the Middle Ages enjoyed a great vogue. The five books are clearly incomplete and thirty further...

Phaedrus

Phaedrus (4)   Reference library

Alessandro Schiesaro

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
518 words

...punishment. Scarcely noticed by Roman writers (he is not mentioned by either L. Annaeus Seneca (2) (the younger Seneca ) or Quintilian in their references to fable), he is first named (though identification is uncertain) by Martial (3. 20. 5 improbi iocos Phaedri , ‘the jokes of mischievous Ph.’) and next by Avianus ( praefat .). Prose paraphrases of his and of other fables were made in later centuries, in particular the collection entitled ‘Romulus’, and in the Middle Ages enjoyed a great vogue. The five books are clearly incomplete and thirty...

comedy (Greek), Old

comedy (Greek), Old   Reference library

Kenneth James Dover

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,344 words

...had cast her. Lysistrata is in many ways unrealistic. Can an old woman really intimidate a policeman? As for the sex-strike, did not the men own female slaves? Didn't any of these ‘sex-starved’ men realize their ‘gay’ potential, as they do in many modern jokes about soldiers and sailors, and ancient jokes too, e.g. Eubulus fr. 118? 4, The comic possibilities of the hero's realization of his fantasy are often exploited by showing, in a succession of short episodes, the consequences of this realization for various professions and types. The end of the play is...

Fable

Fable   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,562 words

...This fable of the tree and the wedges is typical (Perry no. 303): Some woodcutters splitting a wild pine tree drove wedges into the trunk, prying it apart and thus making their work easier. The pine tree groaned and said, “I cannot blame the axe, who had no connection with my root, but these utterly despicable wedges are my own children. Pounded into me this way and that, they are going to tear me apart!” Epimythium . This fable reminds everyone that the bad things that strangers do to you are never as terrible as the things done to you by the members of...

Mathematics

Mathematics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,584 words

...Fifth-century Sophists criticized mathematical assumptions (Protagoras 80B7 Diels-Kranz), just as Plato did later, and tried their luck at the archetypal problem of squaring the circle (Hippias, Antiphon); this problem was well enough known in 414 bce for Aristophanes to make a joke about it in his Birds (line 1005 ). Most of the extant sources indicate Platonist influence. Platonism is especially dominant in Neopythagorean writers such as Nicomachus ( Introduction to Arithmetic , second century ce ) and Iamblichus (fourth century ce) —both of them...

comedy (Greek), Old, Middle, and New

comedy (Greek), Old, Middle, and New   Reference library

Kenneth James Dover, William Geoffrey Arnott, and Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,412 words
Illustration(s):
2

...had cast her. Lysistrata is in many ways unrealistic. Can an old woman really intimidate a policeman? As for the sex-strike, did not the men own female slaves? Didn’t any of these ‘sex-starved’ men realize their ‘gay’ potential, as they do in many modern jokes about soldiers and sailors, and ancient jokes too, e.g. Eubulus fr. 118? 4. The comic possibilities of the hero’s realization of his fantasy are often exploited by showing, in a succession of short episodes, the consequences of this realization for various professions and types. The end of the play is...

Philosophical Schools

Philosophical Schools   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,436 words

...and its ultimate aim seems to have been to discredit Pericles through discrediting his master (Plutarch Pericles 32). But the decree also shows a distrust of philosophers that was widespread in Athens. Consider the parodies of philosophers in Aristophanes’ Clouds , the many jokes about Plato's philosophy recorded by Diogenes Laertius (3.27–29), and the defensive attitude of many philosophers and rhetors of the time. This attitude in the public resurfaced periodically, as in Socrates’ trial. The last known example took place in 307 bce when Demetrius...

Comedy, Greek

Comedy, Greek   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
5,277 words

...Among these, two cities are particularly prominent. On the Greek mainland the inhabitants of Megara—reputedly Susarion's hometown—claimed that their own form of comedy was older than the Attic one, and Attic comic poets in fact liked to ridicule “more primitive” Megarian jokes ( PCG , Eupolis fragment 261, Ecphantides fragment 3; Aristophanes Wasps 57). In Sicily, Epicharmus was considered by his fellow citizens of Megara Hyblaea to be earlier than the earliest Attic comic poets, Chionides and Magnes (see Aristotle Poetics 3.1448a31–34); some...

Cicero

Cicero   Reference library

John Percy Vyvian Balsdon, Miriam T. Griffin, Jonathan G. F. Powell, John Hedley Simon, and Dirk Obbink

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,316 words

...Caesar’s dictatorship offered no opportunity for Cicero to exercise his forensic gifts, and he devoted himself to the writing of treatises on rhetoric and philosophy. During his brief return to public life in 44–43, Cicero delivered the series of speeches known (at his own joking suggestion: Ad Brut. 2. 3. 4) as the Philippics , which directly or indirectly expressed his opposition to Mark Antony ; cf . demosthenes . Fourteen of these survive; at least three more have been lost. Works on rhetoric (a) De inventione , written in Cicero’s youth, is a...

Cicero, Marcus Tullius

Cicero, Marcus Tullius   Quick reference

John Percy Vyvian Dacre Balsdon, Miriam T. Griffin, Jonathan G. F. Powell, John Hedley Simon, and Dirk Obbink

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,257 words

...Caesar's dictatorship offered no opportunity for Cicero to exercise his forensic gifts, and he devoted himself to the writing of treatises on rhetoric and philosophy. During his brief return to public life in 44–43 , Cicero delivered the series of speeches known (at his own joking suggestion: Ad Brut . 2. 3. 4) as the Philippics , which directly or indirectly expressed his opposition to Antony; cf. demosthenes . Fourteen of these survive; at least three more have been lost. works on rhetoric (a) De inventione , written in Cicero's youth, is a...

Latin

Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,553 words
Illustration(s):
1

...speakers of English in mind. Owing in large part to English's Great Vowel Shift beginning in the fifteenth century, as well as to other developments, English vowels and diphthongs are quite different from those found in Latin (it is thus that Latin nautae [sailors] can—in a joke that relies on the unrestored pronunciation [the restored pronunciation is “now-tie”]—be pronounced as a homophone of “naughty”). Crucial to Latin is the differentiation, not visible in spelling, between long and short vowels; by the Classical period, most original diphthongs had...

Horace

Horace   Reference library

Hans Peter Syndikus

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,438 words

...(including Archilochus: cf. fr. 109 West with Epod. 16. 17 ff.) on occasions addressed themselves to the general public, so in these poems Horace represents himself as warning and exhorting the Roman people. There are no iambic elements in the poems to Maecenas: Epod. 3 is a joke, Epod. 14 an excuse, and in Epod. 1 and 9 one friend talks to another in the context of the decisive struggles of 31 bc . Other epodes take up motifs from other contemporary genres (elegy in 11 and 15, pastoral in 2) but with significant alterations of tone: Horace...

Horace

Horace   Quick reference

Hans Peter Syndikus

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,411 words

...(including Archilochus: cf. fr. 109 West with Epod. 16. 17 ff.) on occasions addressed themselves to the general public, so in these poems Horace represents himself as warning and exhorting the Roman people. There are no iambic elements in the poems to Maecenas: Epod. 3 is a joke, Epod. 14 an excuse, and in Epod. 1 and 9 one friend talks to another in the context of the decisive struggles of 31 bc . Other epodes take up motifs from other contemporary genres (elegy in 11 and 15, pastoral in 2) but with significant alterations of tone: Horace...

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)

Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)   Reference library

Hans Peter Syndikus

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,744 words

...(including Archilochus: cf. fr. 109 West with Epod. 16. 17 ff.) on occasions addressed themselves to the general public, so in these poems Horace represents himself as warning and exhorting the Roman people. There are no iambic elements in the poems to Maecenas: Epod. 3 is a joke, Epod. 14 an excuse, and in Epod. 1 and 9 one friend talks to another in the context of the decisive struggles of 31 bc . Other epodes take up motifs from other contemporary genres (elegy in 11 and 15 , pastoral in 2) but with significant alterations of tone: Horace...

Tullius (RE 29) Cicero (1), Marcus

Tullius (RE 29) Cicero (1), Marcus   Reference library

John Percy Vyvian Balsdon, Miriam T. Griffin, Jonathan G. F. Powell, John Hedley Simon, and Dirk Obbink

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7,348 words

...Caesar's dictatorship offered no opportunity for Cicero to exercise his forensic gifts, and he devoted himself to the writing of treatises on rhetoric and philosophy. During his brief return to public life in 44–43 , Cicero delivered the series of speeches known (at his own joking suggestion: Ad Brut. 2. 3. 4) as the Philippics , which directly or indirectly expressed his opposition to M. Antonius ( 2 ) ; cf. demosthenes (2) . Fourteen of these survive; at least three more have been lost. Editions: OCT , Budé, and Teubner carry full series;...

Euripides

Euripides (c.485–406bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
8,369 words
Illustration(s):
1

...And there is no hint of Euripides’ desertion of Athens in the Frogs , which ends with the poet's return to life to save Athens in its time of greatest danger. The claim in the “Life” that the poet died torn apart by wild dogs while in exile certainly looks like an invention prompted by the fate of Pentheus in Bacchae . Despite Aristophanes’ repeated joke that Euripides’ mother was a vegetable vendor, there is every reason to believe that he came from comfortable circumstances. His father, Mnesarchides (or Mnesarchus) was in all likelihood a leading citizen of...

comedy

comedy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
2,298 words

...or inconsistent, contributes to the drama. The actors' costumes were an exaggeration of reality, with grotesque masks (which included hair) and body padding and, probably, a large phallus for male characters. The costume expressed the robust nature of Old Comedy, in which the jokes were much concerned with sex and excretion and the language uninhibited. The comedy took as its starting point a fantastic scheme on the part of the hero, the achievement of which, wholly impossible in real life, constituted the plot. A few prominent citizens were vilified,...

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