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Johnson's Dictionary

By Samuel Johnson, published 1755. In 1746 Johnson contracted with Robert Dodsley and other booksellers to write an English dictionary, for a fee of £1,575. A ‘Plan’ and dedication to ... ...

Computational Morphology

Computational Morphology   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,543 words
Illustration(s):
2

...recognition corresponds to the upward direction, while generation goes the opposite way. Figure 1. Framework for Computational Morphology 2. Finite-state phonology Phonological rules define the relation between the underlying form and the surface form of the word. Douglas Johnson noted in 1972 that phonological rules correspond closely to finite-state transducers . Ronald Kaplan and Martin Kay noted in 1981 (and published in 1994 ) that rules of generative phonology can be compiled into a cascade of transducers, where the output tape of one...

Prescriptive Grammar

Prescriptive Grammar   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,888 words

...(mainly formal and scientific), which allowed this extension of function. Then followed a process of codification, which involved setting down explicitly a set of linguistic norms. During the 18th century in England, many grammar books and dictionaries were produced; the best known are probably Samuel Johnson 's dictionary ( 1755 ), and grammars by Bishop Lowth ( 1762 ) and Lindley Murray ( 1795 ). In some countries, institutions such as the Académie Française had already been set up for the purpose of codification, and their prescriptions were supported by...

Sign Language

Sign Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
10,567 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Early analyses emphasize the apparent simultaneity with which the formational elements are articulated, but subsequent studies point to significant sequential properties (Liddell 1984 a, Sandler 1989 ), and models have been developed to reflect this sequentiality (Liddell and Johnson 1989 , Sandler 1989 ). One of many examples of sequentiality is the morphological operation of verb agreement, which requires distinct reference to the beginning and ending of the sign, shown in Figure 2 for the ASL verb ‘give’. Figure 2. Verb Agreement Morphology Must Refer...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

.... Natural Language Engineering 5.113–133. Richardson, R. , and A. Smeaton . 1995. Using WordNet in a knowledge-based approach to information retrieval. In Proceedings of the 17th BCS-IRSG Colloquium, Crewe . Rosch, Eleanor ; Carolyn Mervis ; Wayne Gray ; David Johnson ; and Penny Boyes-Braem . 1976. Basic objects in natural categories . Cognitive Psychology 8.387–439. Schuetze, Hinrich . 1997. Ambiguity resolution in language learning . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Silberman, S. 2000. Talking to strangers. Wired 8.05, May...

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Bilingualism and Multilingualism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,869 words

...and learn a second language with apparent native-like proficiency, perhaps as a result of unusual cortical cellular organization (Novoa et al. 1988 ). In addition, the notion of a critical period, or even a sensitive period, has been questioned in light of studies like those of Johnson and Newport that show decline in morphosyntactic competence from acquisition ages well before puberty. Cortical stimulation studies of bilinguals (Ojemann and Whitaker 1978 ) suggest partial but incomplete overlap of organization of the two languages within the left hemisphere....

Semantics

Semantics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
18,984 words
Illustration(s):
6

...which has proved fruitful in analyzing central linguistic categories such as transitivity and modality. Lakoff has stressed the ultimate dependence of meaning on bodily grounding in a more general sense, as reflected in the “neural theory of language project” (cf. Lakoff and Johnson 1999 ). As a natural consequence of its experiential basis, cognitive linguistics emphasizes gradual and fuzzy properties of meanings, as opposed to the “all-and-only” picture evoked by formal semantics. The “prototypicality effects” associated with basic-level concepts and the...

Historical Linguistics

Historical Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

...problem is well known in computational cladistics (classification by proportion of shared features). Although this problem is NP-hard (i.e., it is believed that there can be no polynomial-time algorithm that will give the correct solution for all inputs; see Garey and Johnson 1979 ), polynomial-time solutions now exist for cases in which one input parameter can be bounded (see, e.g., Agarwala and Fernandez-Baca 1994 , Kannan and Warnow 1997 ). Unfortunately, eliminating all parallel development from a comparative linguistic character set is...

Kannada

Kannada  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A language belonging to the Dravidian family; mostly spoken in Karnataka.
Franz Bopp

Franz Bopp  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
(1791–1867)A Bavarian who, inspired by Charles Wilkins' Pāṇini-based Sanskrit grammar, and the work of Sir William Jones, attempted to reconstruct proto-Indo-European, and so helped to found modern ...
Urdu

Urdu  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
An Indic language closely related to Hindi but written in the Persian script and having many loanwords from Persian and Arabic. It is the official language of Pakistan, and is also widely used in ...
Hindi

Hindi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A North Indian Indo-Āryan vernacular which, in its medieval dialects, was the medium of much bhakti literature, such as the works of Kabīr, Mīrābaī, and Tulsīdās(a). In the 20th century, Hindi—a ...
Tamil

Tamil  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
1 One of the major Dravidian languages of South India. There are approximately 60 million Tamil speakers at the beginning of the 21st century, mostly in the state of Tamil Nadu, but including over ...
Indo-Āryan

Indo-Āryan  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
A term coined by philologists to distinguish the Indian, or Indic, branch of the Indo-Iranian language group from its Iranian counterpart. This model is predicated on the assumption that there was at ...
Dravidian

Dravidian  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Linguistics
Adjective, derived from Drāviḍa, applied to the languages and cultural forms associated with the peoples of South India, principally the inhabitants of Tamil Nadu (dominant language: Tamil), Andhra ...
nymphaeum

nymphaeum  

[MC]Generally, any place consecrated to nymphs, especially natural places such as a spring, river, mountain, or tree. In classical times it often took the form of an elaborately decorated ...
apse

apse  

A large semicircular or polygonal recess in a church, arched or with a domed roof and typically at the church's eastern end. Recorded from the early 19th century, the word comes from Latin apsis ...
Indo-European

Indo-European  

Of or relating to the family of languages spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as northern India.The Indo-European languages have a history of over 3,000 years. Their unattested, ...
baths

baths  

[Co]A feature of all Roman towns and cities as well as private houses throughout the empire. From the 1st century bc onwards, the tradition of bathing became a major social institution. See thermae.
tree

tree  

A large, perennial, woody plant that usually has one main trunk, a number of branches, and a crown of foliage.
possession

possession  

A very common phenomenon in popular and village Hinduism, involving the apparent ‘possession’ of a (usually lower-caste) individual by another entity, the presence of which is made evident through ...

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