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Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg, Johann

Gutenberg, Johann (c.1400–1468)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
738 words

..., Johann ( c .1400–1468 ) Inventor of printing in Europe. From a patrician family in Mainz, Gutenberg possibly studied at the University of Erfurt. In the 1430s and 1440s , he lived in exile due to a conflict between the patricians and the guilds. Between 1434 and 1444 he was in Strassburg, where he engaged in the mass manufacture of metal mirrors and experimented in a secret art, probably related to printing. After returning to Mainz by 1448 , Gutenberg borrowed money from *Fust to set up a press. In 1454 , a legal dispute arose between...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...numerals. 1453 Johann Gutenberg introduces movable type in printing. 1504 Amerigo Vespucci recognizes New World is not Asia. 1510 Leonardo da Vinci proposes water-driven turbine and many other science concepts. 1521 Ferdinand Magellan's circumnavigation confirms Earth's size. 1543 Nicolas Copernicus publishes De Revolutionibus , heliocentric theory. 1568 Gerhart Mercator's map projection for sailors and explorers. 1600 William Gilbert explains Earth's magnetism. 1608 Galileo improves telescope, advances ideas on gravity and motion. 1609 Johann Kepler...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and competitiveness. It can hardly be immaterial to this rebirth that Erasmus was in these years overseeing the publication of the works of Aristotle and other Greek authors. For the first time, these books were set in the movable type developed a few decades earlier (the Gutenberg Bible dates from 1456 ). Whatever its ultimate causes, the pride of the new age was evident in Michelangelo, both in his defiant David ( 1504 ) or in his sternly judicial Moses ( 1515 ). In literature, Shakespeare puts it best, in Hamlet ( 1600 ). In a gloomy humor,...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Book, 1450–1750 (1995) M. Giesecke , Der Buchdruck in der frühen Neuzeit (1991) [ Gutenberg-Gesellschaft and Gutenberg-Museum ,] Blockbücher des Mittelalters (1991) J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1987) G. Jäger , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert , pts. 1 and 2, Das Kaiserreich 1871–1918 (2001–3) F. Kapp and J. Goldfriedrich , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels (4 vols, 1886–1913; repr. 1970) A. Kapr , Johann Gutenberg , tr. D. Martin (1996) H.-J. Künast , ‘Getruckt zu Augspurg’: Buchdruck und...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(and university library) in 1460 testified to the city’s intellectual life. Berthold Ruppel , who had worked with *Gutenberg in Mainz, introduced the printing trade to Basle in the 1460s ; it rose to considerable significance by the 1480s , with more than 70 printers at work by the turn of the century. Among the important *incunables produced in the city was Sebastian Brant’s Narrenschiff (Ship of Fools, 1494 ), printed by Johann Bergmann von Olpe, easily the most popular book in German before the Reformation. Around 1500 , humanism and the Basle...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...missionaries had succeeded in printing catechisms in Japanese as early as 1865 . 6 Conclusion As Europeans began to travel to all corners of the earth beginning in the 15 th century, they were determined not only to conquer new lands but also to spread their faith. From *Gutenberg they had learned the power of the printed word, and were determined to use this revolutionary new technology to Christianize Asia. The impact of these efforts varied depending on a number of circumstances. The two most significant variables were the ability to wield control as...

Mainz Catholicon

Mainz Catholicon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
162 words

... *Gutenberg in 1460 , who would have invented a method for preserving the typesetting of this large work, and that it was reprinted from the same reconstituted typesetting in 1469 and c .1472 . An alternative theory posits that, after Gutenberg’s death in 1468 , it was entirely printed in Mainz in the second half of 1469 and published by a consortium of his heirs and creditors, partly with material left by him. Lotte Hellinga L. Hellinga , ‘ Das Mainzer “Catholicon” und Gutenbergs Nachlass ’, AGB 40 (1993), 395–416 P. Needham , ‘ Johann Gutenberg and...

Gutenberg, Johannes

Gutenberg, Johannes   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
614 words
Illustration(s):
1

... The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe . Cambridge, 1983. Ing, Janet . Johann Gutenberg and his Bible . New York, 1988. König, Eberhard , ed. Zur Situation der Gutenberg-Forschung . Münster, 1995. Ruppel, Aloys . Johannes Gutenberg: Sein Leben und sein Werk . Berlin, 1939, 1947; reprint, Nieuwkoop, Netherlands, 1967. Venzke, Andreas . Johannes Gutenberg: Der Erfinder des Buchdrucks und seine Zeit . Munich, 2000. Widmann, Hans , ed. Der gegenwärtige Stand der Gutenberg-Forschung . Stuttgart, 1972. Andreas...

Fust, Johann

Fust, Johann (1457–1466)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
288 words

...Johann (active 1457–1466 ) , and Peter Schoeffer (active 1457–1503 ) Mainz printers . In 1448 , *Gutenberg borrowed money from the Mainz merchant Johann Fust to set up a press. Peter Schoeffer, who had studied at the University of Paris, became Gutenberg’s apprentice. A dispute between Fust and Gutenberg in 1454/5 resulted in the handing over of Gutenberg’s printing press to his former partners, who set up a workshop together, cooperating closely with local binders and illustrators. While Fust provided financial backing and managed the sales,...

Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,012 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (1996) GW 4201 J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1988) E. König , ‘New Perspectives on the History of Mainz Printing’, in Printing the Written Word , ed. S. L. Hindman (1991) — Zur Situation der Gutenberg-Forschung (1995) P. Needham , ‘ Division of Copy in the Gutenberg Bible ’, PBSA 79 (1985), 411–26 — ‘ The Paper Supply of the Gutenberg Bible ’, PBSA 79 (1985), 302–410 W. Schmidt and F. A. Schmidt-Künsemüller , Johannes Gutenbergs zweiundvierzigzeilige Bibel: Kommentarband (1979) P. Schwenke , Festschrift zur Gutenbergfeier (1900) —...

incunabulum

incunabulum   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
313 words

...(pl. incunabula : [Lat., ‘swaddling-clothes’, ‘cradle’] ). European printing with movable *type produced between the mid- 1450s —when *Gutenberg invented it in Mainz and the first printed items appeared ( *indulgences , the *Gutenberg Bible )—and 1501 . Block-books ( see block printing ) and engravings, although mechanically reproduced in the same period, are not incunabula. Some 27,000 separate *edition s of incunabula are now on record as surviving ( see istc ). The *press run of each edition could vary according to available...

Coster, Laurens Janszoon

Coster, Laurens Janszoon   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
190 words

...an imprint. This gave him the idea of printing books with movable type. However, during Christmas night of 1441 his servant Johann Faust stole his material, fled to Mainz, and began printing himself. This is in a nutshell the Coster legend, which was first recorded by Hadrianus Junius ( Batavia , 1588 ). Coster subsequently became first a local, then a national hero whose honour was widely defended against the claims of *Gutenberg . He became the centre of national celebrations (his statue was unveiled in Haarlem in 1856 ), music, and plays. In fact, the...

Music Industry

Music Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
4,930 words
Illustration(s):
2

...method known as engraving; or individual lines, notes, notations, and text could be set in movable type following a much more complex variant of the processes believed to have been invented by Johann Gutenberg (1397–1468) . Engraved music tended to be of higher quality than typeset music, but the typesetting method was greatly improved during the 1750s by Johann G. I. Breitkopf (1719–1794) of Leipzig. In the early years of the nineteenth century a new process, stone lithography, reduced music publishing costs. Further cost reductions and quality...

Economics of International Communication

Economics of International Communication   Reference library

Stefan H. Fritsch

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,932 words

...State in a Globalized Knowledge Society The Post-Westphalian State States, as one of the main actors in the global political economy of communication, have been extensively analyzed in the last few decades. Until the invention of the printing press with moveable type by Johann Gutenberg , the production, storage, and dissemination of information in Latin through a European network of seminars and monasteries were largely controlled by the Catholic Church ( Dudley 1991 ). The cheap mass production of books in common languages not only challenged the...

Libraries and collections

Libraries and collections   Reference library

Mary Wallace Davidson, D.W. Krummel, and James P. Cassaro

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
45,565 words

...of Rare Books and Special Collections, is the private *Scheide Library ( PRscheide ), moved to Princeton in 1959 . The collection, although still a private library, is available to scholars. It holds very significant collections of Bibles in manuscript and print, including a Gutenberg and a 36-line Bible; medieval manuscripts, and incunabula. While not primarily a music collection, this library includes some extraordinary musical treasures, such as the fair copy of Wagner's Das Rheingold , a Beethoven sketchbook, and autograph manuscripts of works by Mozart...

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