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Overview

Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg, Johann

Gutenberg, Johann (c.1396–1468)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
80 words

..., Johann ( c. 1396–1468 ), goldsmith , traditionally credited with establishing printing in the W. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. His most famous work was the ‘Gutenberg Bible’, the earliest full-length book ever printed, probably in 1453-5 ; it was certainly completed by 1456 . It is also known as the ‘forty-two line’ Bible from the number of lines in each column, and was formerly also called the ‘ Mazarin Bible ’...

Gutenberg, Johann

Gutenberg, Johann (1396–1468)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
274 words

...prob. printed by Gutenberg , possibly in co-operation with others. It is also possible that he was involved with the production of Joannes Balbus de Janua's Catholicon ( 1460 ). From 1465 he was pensioned by the Abp. of Mainz. Schoeffer continued to print until 1502 . D. C. McMurtrie (ed.), The Gutenberg Documents, with Translations of the Texts into English (New York, 1941). J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible ( ibid. , 1988); M. Davies , The Gutenberg Bible [1996]. P. Needham , ‘ The Paper Supply of the Gutenberg Bible ’, Papers...

Law

Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,024 words

...Studien zur Konkordienformel der lutherischen Reformation . Edited by Wenzel Lohff . Stuttgart, 1977. See pp. 197–222. Neuser, H. Der Ansatz der Theologie Philipp Melanchthons . Neukirchen, 1957. Räcke, G. “Gesetz und Evangelium bei Calvin.” Diss., Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1953. Schloemann, Martin . Natürliches undgepredigtes Gesetz bei Luther . Berlin, 1961. Stakemeier, Eduard . Der Kampf um Augustin auf dem Tridentinum . Paderborn, 1937. Tschackert, Paul . Die Entstehung der lutherischen und der reformierten Kirchenlehre...

Mazarin Bible

Mazarin Bible  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
A Latin Bible so called from a copy in the library of Card. Mazarin. It is also known as the ‘Gutenberg Bible’, after J. Gutenberg, its printer, and as the ‘42-line Bible’, from the number of lines ...
Illustrated Bibles.

Illustrated Bibles.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The subject of illustrations to the Bible includes not only two‐dimensional designs, such as paintings, drawings, engravings, photographs, stained‐glass windows, and mosaics, but three‐dimensional ...
Circulation of the Bible.

Circulation of the Bible.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
By the end of 1992, translations of the entire Bible had been published in 329 languages, the New Testament in 770 additional languages, and individual books of the Bible in ...
translations of Bible

translations of Bible  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
After the Greek Septuagint and the so-called Vetus Latina, Jerome’s Vulgate was gradually accepted in the west as standard. In the east, early translations were made into Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopic ...
Bible

Bible  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Religion
The Christian scriptures, consisting of the Old and New Testaments; the Jewish scriptures, consisting of the Torah or Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa or Writings.The Bible is traditionally ...
Mazarin Bible

Mazarin Bible   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
28 words

...Bible . A Latin Bible so called from a copy in the library of Card. Mazarin . It is now more commonly called the ‘Gutenberg Bible’. See Gutenberg, Johann...

Mazarin Bible

Mazarin Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
289 words

...first attracted the attention of scholars to this magnificent work, it is also known as the ‘Gutenberg Bible’, after J. Gutenberg , its printer, or again as the ‘42-line Bible’, from having that number of lines to each column. It is both the first full-length book ever printed, and the first printed edition of the Bible. Gutenberg contributed to it the technical inventions of making matrices and casting movable type from them; his experiments were financed by Johann Fust , a Mainz banker, and the design of the type-face was the work of Peter Schoeffer , a...

Printing and Publishing

Printing and Publishing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,244 words

...Verse Divisions ; Children's Bibles ; Curious Bibles ; Family Bible ; Gutenberg, Johann Gensfleisch zum ; Illustrated Bibles ; Italics ; Polyglot Bibles ; and Scofield Reference Bibles . The Printed Bible The Significance of Printing. The process of printing from movable types was developed in Mainz in the 1450s by a partnership that included Johannes Gutenberg . Among the first printed books were the forty‐two‐line Latin Bible (folio, ?Mainz, ? 1455 ) called the “Gutenberg” or “Mazarin,” and the thirty‐six‐line Bible that may have followed it...

Manuscripts

Manuscripts   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,608 words

...ten Pauline letters; both have been dated to ca. 200 CE . The oldest parchment New Testament copies are Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, both from the fourth century. From roughly 300–1000 CE , about three hundred manuscripts remain; and from about 1000–1500 ( Gutenberg invented movable‐type printing around 1450), about two thousand copies have survived. Since of all these known copies only fifty‐nine contain the entire New Testament, it is clear that prior to the invention of printing relatively few individuals or even congregations...

Opponents, Roman Catholic

Opponents, Roman Catholic   Reference library

Jared Wicks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,467 words

...November 9, 1518). 21. Hans Volz , “Die ersten Sammelausgaben von Lutherschriften und ihre Drucker (1518–1520),” Gutenberg Jahrbuch 1960, 185–203, listing the contents of the 1518 edition on p. 191. Three works studied by Cajetan, on the indulgence theses, sacramental penance, and excommunication, were included, while Froben also printed Prierias’s Dialogue , Luther’s Responsio to Prierias, and a work of Andreas Karlstadt against Johann Eck. 22. Karel Blockx , De veroordeling van Maarten Luther door de theologische faculteit te Leuven in 1519 ...

Children’s Bibles and Literature

Children’s Bibles and Literature   Reference library

Ruth B. Bottigheimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Art & Architecture
Length:
7,054 words

...in the later 1600s by authors such as Justus Gesenius, Johann Amos Comenius, Johann Christfried Sagittarius, Bartholomaeus Lenderich, and Johann Gottfried Zeidler prepared the way for the first large-scale Protestant children’s Bible success, the 1714 Zweymahl zwey und funffzig Auserlesene Biblische Historien Aus dem Alten und Neuen Testamente, Der Jugend zum Besten abgefasset (Twice Fifty-Two Selected Biblical Histories from the Old and New Testament, composed for the Benefit of Youth) by Johann Hübner ( 1668–1731 ). An illustration copied from the...

Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire

Lutheranism in the Holy Roman Empire   Reference library

Joachim Whaley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,797 words

...properly moved to defend Duke Henry, but also to smash the Schmalkaldic League. Hostilities began in July 1546 . By April 1547 the combined imperial and Ernestine Saxon armies had defeated the opposition. The Elector Johann Friedrich (r. 1532–1554 ) was captured at Mühlberg; Philip of Hessen was captured shortly afterward. Johann Friedrich was initially condemned to death because he refused to submit to the emperor’s authority in the religious question. But, together with Philip of Hessen, he was subsequently transferred to the custody of the duke of...

Printing, Propaganda, and Public Opinion

Printing, Propaganda, and Public Opinion   Reference library

David Bagchi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,569 words

...It was little wonder that the first printers were highly skilled workers, such as goldsmiths and moneyers, rather than enterprising block printers. The earliest printed books included veritable works of art such as the Psalter of Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer, and the 42-line Bible traditionally attributed to Johann Gutenberg; but from our point of view it is significant that, contemporaneously with these fine works, the Mainz presses were turning out more popular and ephemeral material, such as vernacular printed calendars and letters of indulgence. 30 ...

Works: An Overview of Writings

Works: An Overview of Writings   Reference library

Robert Kolb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,641 words

...in Kurt Aland’s Hilfsbuch zum Lutherstudium . 117 As noted previously, scholars have given relatively little attention to Luther’s use of and interaction with the printing industry and to his use of genre despite their extensive treatment of his use of language. 118 In his Gutenberg Galaxy , Marshall McLuhan opened up a new research field, the impact of media upon thinking, but Luther played no significant role in his work. 119 Elizabeth Eisenstein treated “the Scriptural tradition recast” by the Reformation in some detail. She points out that “even before...

Rhetoric

Rhetoric   Reference library

Anna Vind

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,355 words

...Kolb , Irene Dingel and L’ubomír Batka (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014). 88. Cf. Gerald Fleming , “On the Origin of the Passional Christi and Antichristi and Lucas Cranach the Elder’s Contribution to Reformation Polemics in the Iconography of the Passional,” Gutenberg Jahrbuch 48 (1973): 352–368. 89. Cf. Ueding, Wörterbuch , vol. 7, “Reformation,” 1096, with reference to Peter Matheson , The Rhetoric of the Reformation (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998). Anna Vind 1. Ulla Fix , Andreas Gardt and Joachim Knape , eds., Rhetorik und Stilistik:...

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