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Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg, Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch)

Gutenberg, Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch) (c.1400–68)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
246 words

..., Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch) ( c .1400–68 ) *Goldsmith , technician , and entrepreneur active in *Mainz and *Strasbourg . His name derives from the family house, the Gutenberg . He is credited with inventing movable-type *printing by combining *metal casting, the arrangement of individual cast units, and the mechanical press. There are few written sources about Gutenberg and no contemporary *portrait of him. It is believed that he was born in Mainz; he eventually entered the service of the important prince-archbishop *elector of...

Gutenberg, Johannes

Gutenberg, Johannes (c.1400–1468)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
474 words

...his original, less elaborate type, as was the 36-line Bible) that Gutenberg owed the success of his first workshop, which he directed doubtless until his death, and the spread of his invention, notably by the sale of characters. F. Geldner , Die deutschen Inkunabeldrucker , 1, Stuttgart, 1968. Joh. Gutenbergs 42zeilige Bibel. Kommentarband , W. Schmidt (dir.), F. A. Schmidt-Künsemüller (dir.), Munich, 1979. Gutenberg. 550 Jahre Buchdruck in Europa , Wolfenbüttel, 1990, 9-52. A. Kapr , Johann Guttenberg: the man and his invention , Aldershot, 1996. Martial...

Coster (Koster), Laurens Janszoon

Coster (Koster), Laurens Janszoon  

(legendary figure) Dutch printer supposed to have invented a printing technique in Haarlem in 1428, before Gutenberg. First mentioned by Hadrianus Junius in 1570, this remained a popular belief in ...
Jurists, Italian

Jurists, Italian  

In the juridical experience of the Middle Ages the jurists (civilists, canonists and feudists) of the Italian school occupy a central place, so much so that the dominant jurisprudential movement ...
Mainz

Mainz  

(archbishopric) Located near the confluence of the Rhine and Main rivers, Mainz was an important see in the MA. It became an archbishopric under Charlemagne, with Boniface as the first ...
Block-book

Block-book   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,624 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Stein Col.). The earliest block-books from the heartland of northern Europe date probably from the middle of the 15th century. Around this time Johann Gutenberg in Mainz was perfecting printing by means of movable type that was cast in metal. Thus the uneven alignment of letters in the hand-cut line of text in the block-book was corrected by the typographic page, printed in a press. By the late 1470s Gutenberg’s method gained total ascendancy, and the making of block-books ended, after only about 25 years. Thus the block-book was not the precursor of the...

Terence

Terence (c. 190 bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and Method of Text Illustration (Princeton, 1947, rev. 2/1970) Terence Illustrated (exh. cat., ed. M. L. Richmond ; Williamstown, MA, Williams Coll., Chapin Lib., 1955) M. Chèvre : ‘Imitation et originalité: Quelques illustrations de Térence du XVème au XVIème siècle’, Gutenberg Jb. , xxxvi (1961), pp. 207–14 T. E. Lawrenson and H. Purkis : ‘Les Editions illustrées de Térence dans l’histoire du théâtre: Spectacles dans un fauteuil?’, Le Lieu théâtral à la Renaissance , ed. J. Jacquot (Paris, 1964), pp. 1–23 W. Koehler and F. Mütherich : ...

Book

Book   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... see Manuscript and Studio ). The 42-line Bible printed in Mainz by Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394/9–1468) from movable type in 1456 and the more securely dated Psalter (1457) of Johann Fust ( c . 1400–1466) and Peter Schöffer ( c . 1425–1502) inaugurated a new era in the history of European book production. Technically, the new process was less an invention than the fusion of already existing skills. Physically the printed book differed little from the handwritten one. Indeed Gutenberg and the early printers took great care to cut type that imitated as...

Pilgrim badge

Pilgrim badge   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,485 words
Illustration(s):
1

...easily smelted tin–lead alloy in moulds of fine-grained stone, which often yielded several badges at every casting. Moulds were sometimes carved by seal-engravers and, more often, by goldsmiths, among them craftsmen as renowned as Albrecht Altdorfer ( c. 1480–1538 ) and Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394 / 9–1468 ). Moulds ranged, however, from works of notable artistic merit (as at Canterbury during the later 14th century (e.g. London, BM) or at Aachen during the 15th) to examples of folk art, at best lively and at worst banal. In the 15th century an...

Fables

Fables   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...und Erzählstruktur (Tübingen, 1992) G. Dicke : Heinrich Steinhöwels ‘Esopus’ und seine Fortsetzer (Tübingen, 1994) A. Coates and others: A Catalogue of Books Printed in the Fifteenth Century now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Oxford, 2005) S. Füssel : Gutenberg and the Impact of Printing (Aldershot and Burlington, VT, 2005) ...

Mainz

Mainz   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Emmeran (both 14th century; ruinous) and St Stephan (completed c. 1340 ; rebuilt), the Liebfrauenkirche (destr. early 19th century) and the churches of the Carmelites ( c. 1350–1400 ), the Poor Clares, the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The invention c. 1446 by Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394 / 9–1468 ) of printing with movable type had a decisive impact on intellectual life. A feud ( 1461–3 ) between archbishops Adolf II of Nassau and Dieter von Isenburg ( d 1482 ) resulted in the sack of Mainz ( 1462 ) and the repeal of its privileges, but its...

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