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Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg, Johann

Gutenberg, Johann (1394)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
291 words

..., Johann ( c. 1394 / 9 – 1468 ), Inventor of printing, born in Mainz, the son of Friele Gensfleisch ; the name Gutenberg derives from the name of the family home, Haus zum Gutenberg. He trained as a goldsmith and in 1430 moved to Strassburg, where he worked with a goldsmith and began to experiment with printing techniques. He returned to Mainz c. 1448 and in 1450 borrowed 800 gulden from Johann Fust (who was later to invest another 800 gulden and become his business partner) in order to establish a printing workshop. He worked with Fust and...

Gutenberg, Johann

Gutenberg, Johann (c.1400–1468)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
738 words

..., Johann ( c .1400–1468 ) Inventor of printing in Europe. From a patrician family in Mainz, Gutenberg possibly studied at the University of Erfurt. In the 1430s and 1440s , he lived in exile due to a conflict between the patricians and the guilds. Between 1434 and 1444 he was in Strassburg, where he engaged in the mass manufacture of metal mirrors and experimented in a secret art, probably related to printing. After returning to Mainz by 1448 , Gutenberg borrowed money from *Fust to set up a press. In 1454 , a legal dispute arose between...

Gutenberg, Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch)

Gutenberg, Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch) (c.1400–68)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
246 words

..., Johannes (Johann Gensfleisch) ( c .1400–68 ) *Goldsmith , technician , and entrepreneur active in *Mainz and *Strasbourg . His name derives from the family house, the Gutenberg . He is credited with inventing movable-type *printing by combining *metal casting, the arrangement of individual cast units, and the mechanical press. There are few written sources about Gutenberg and no contemporary *portrait of him. It is believed that he was born in Mainz; he eventually entered the service of the important prince-archbishop *elector of...

24 The History of the Book in Germany

24 The History of the Book in Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,033 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...Book, 1450–1750 (1995) M. Giesecke , Der Buchdruck in der frühen Neuzeit (1991) [ Gutenberg-Gesellschaft and Gutenberg-Museum ,] Blockbücher des Mittelalters (1991) J. Ing , Johann Gutenberg and his Bible (1987) G. Jäger , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert , pts. 1 and 2, Das Kaiserreich 1871–1918 (2001–3) F. Kapp and J. Goldfriedrich , Geschichte des deutschen Buchhandels (4 vols, 1886–1913; repr. 1970) A. Kapr , Johann Gutenberg , tr. D. Martin (1996) H.-J. Künast , ‘Getruckt zu Augspurg’: Buchdruck und...

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland

25 The History of the Book in Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,936 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...(and university library) in 1460 testified to the city’s intellectual life. Berthold Ruppel , who had worked with *Gutenberg in Mainz, introduced the printing trade to Basle in the 1460s ; it rose to considerable significance by the 1480s , with more than 70 printers at work by the turn of the century. Among the important *incunables produced in the city was Sebastian Brant’s Narrenschiff (Ship of Fools, 1494 ), printed by Johann Bergmann von Olpe, easily the most popular book in German before the Reformation. Around 1500 , humanism and the Basle...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...missionaries had succeeded in printing catechisms in Japanese as early as 1865 . 6 Conclusion As Europeans began to travel to all corners of the earth beginning in the 15 th century, they were determined not only to conquer new lands but also to spread their faith. From *Gutenberg they had learned the power of the printed word, and were determined to use this revolutionary new technology to Christianize Asia. The impact of these efforts varied depending on a number of circumstances. The two most significant variables were the ability to wield control as...

Law

Law   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
10,024 words

...Studien zur Konkordienformel der lutherischen Reformation . Edited by Wenzel Lohff . Stuttgart, 1977. See pp. 197–222. Neuser, H. Der Ansatz der Theologie Philipp Melanchthons . Neukirchen, 1957. Räcke, G. “Gesetz und Evangelium bei Calvin.” Diss., Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 1953. Schloemann, Martin . Natürliches undgepredigtes Gesetz bei Luther . Berlin, 1961. Stakemeier, Eduard . Der Kampf um Augustin auf dem Tridentinum . Paderborn, 1937. Tschackert, Paul . Die Entstehung der lutherischen und der reformierten Kirchenlehre...

Johann Neumeister

Johann Neumeister  

(1430/40–1512),German printer who may have been a pupil of Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of ...
Johann Mentelin

Johann Mentelin  

(c.1410–1478),German printer, born in Schlettstadt (now French Sélestat). In about 1468 he became the first printer in Strassburg. In 1460 Mentelin published a 49-line Bible, which enabled him to ...
Coster (Koster), Laurens Janszoon

Coster (Koster), Laurens Janszoon  

(legendary figure) Dutch printer supposed to have invented a printing technique in Haarlem in 1428, before Gutenberg. First mentioned by Hadrianus Junius in 1570, this remained a popular belief in ...
Berthold Ruppel

Berthold Ruppel  

(d. 1495),German printer. He was trained in Gutenberg's workshop in Mainz and in 1464 established the first printing workshop in Basel. One of his most popular publications was an edition of Gregory ...
Arnold Pannartz

Arnold Pannartz  

(fl.1463–77),German printers. They were apprenticed in Mainz, possibly in Gutenberg's workshop, and in 1463 moved to Italy, where they established the first printing press outside Germany in the ...
Ulrich Zell

Ulrich Zell  

(d. 1507),German printer who established the first printing workshop in Cologne in 1464. In the course of his career he printed more than 200 titles, mostly works of theology ...
Peter Schöffer

Peter Schöffer  

(c.1425–c.1503),German printer. He was born in Gernsheim (Rhine) and by 1449 was working as a scriptor (i.e. manuscript copyist) in Paris. He later married Dyna (or Christina), the daughter ...
Laurens Janszoon Koster

Laurens Janszoon Koster  

(c.1370–c.1440),Dutch xylographer, born in Haarlem, where he worked as a printer of block books (or xylographs) and from 1417 to 1434 held a series of important civic posts, including ...
Erhard Ratdolt

Erhard Ratdolt  

 (1447–c.1528) Printer in Venice and Augsburg.Ratdolt’s Venetian press (1476–86) developed numerous typographical innovations (Renaissance initials and borders, printing in multiple colours), and ...
Jurists, Italian

Jurists, Italian  

In the juridical experience of the Middle Ages the jurists (civilists, canonists and feudists) of the Italian school occupy a central place, so much so that the dominant jurisprudential movement ...
Mainz

Mainz  

(archbishopric) Located near the confluence of the Rhine and Main rivers, Mainz was an important see in the MA. It became an archbishopric under Charlemagne, with Boniface as the first ...
indulgence

indulgence  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
In the Roman Catholic Church, a grant by the Pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution. The unrestricted sale of indulgences by pardoners was a ...
Fust, Johann

Fust, Johann (c.1400–1466)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
117 words

...Johann ( c. 1400–1466 ), German printer, a Mainz lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 gulden to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 gulden and became Gutenberg's partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455 , Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer . On 14 August 1457 Schöffer and Fust published the elegant Mainz Psalter, which was the first book to use colours, and in 1462 they published a two-volume Latin Bible. Their edition of Cicero 's De...

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