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Johann Gutenberg

Subject: Literature

(c.1396–1468), inventor of printing. He was a native of Mainz. In 1448 he borrowed money, probably for developing his printing process. He printed the Mazarin Bible (q.v.) and ...

Gutenberg [Gensfleisch zur Laden], Johann

Gutenberg [Gensfleisch zur Laden], Johann (c.1394–99)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
484 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Gutenberg seems to have abandoned printing altogether, possibly because of failing eyesight. NDB A. Ruppel : Johannes Gutenberg: Sein Leben und sein Werk (Berlin, 1939/ R Nieuwkoop, 1967) V. Scholderer : Johann Gutenberg: The Inventor of Printing (London, 1963) Johannes Gutenbergs 42-zeilige Bibel , 2 vols (Munich, 1979) [facs] A. Kapr : Johann Gutenberg: The Man and His Invention (Aldershot and Brookfield, 1996) Gutenberg, man of the millennium: from a secret enterprise to the first media revolution (exh. cat. by W. Dobras ; Mainz, Gutenberg...

McLuhan, Marshall

McLuhan, Marshall (1911–1980)   Reference library

Richard Cavell

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,153 words

... The Gutenberg Galaxy , McLuhan was associated with anthropologist Edmund Carpenter in the editing of the journal Explorations ( 1953–1959 ). Carpenter’s work on Inuit art emphasized to McLuhan that the aesthetic canons of the West were not absolute; in particular, Inuit art displayed a multidirectional spatial orientation that McLuhan associated with acoustic space, which he described as “dynamic, always in flux, creating its own dimensions moment by moment” 1955 , p. 17). McLuhan fused this dynamic aesthetic with his methodology in The Gutenberg Galaxy...

Genius

Genius   Reference library

Timothy Gould and Christine Battersby

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,926 words

...Buchgesellschaft, 1985. Schopenhauer, Arthur . “On Genius.” The Essays of Arthur Schopenhauer: The Art of Literature . Translated by T. Bailey Saunders in 1891, and produced online by Juliet Sutherland and Josephine Paolucci , 2004. Project Gutenberg e-book, pp. 70–82. http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/10714/pg10714.html . Schopenhauer, Arthur . The World as Will and Representation . 2 vols. Translated by E. F. J. Payne . New York: Dover, 1969. Shenk, David . The Genius in All of Us: New Insights into Genetics, Talent and IQ . New York:...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...shows a commanding figure with robe, sceptre and eagle, perhaps an early representation of Zeus. Around 680 bc the Passas Painter and the Analatos Painter collaborated in decorating two elaborate cauldrons with high stands for an aristocratic funeral ( Mainz , Johannes Gutenberg-U., 153 and 156) which explored the possibilities of adding white and red to the colour scheme. White was preferred by these early artists and often used for subsidiary details on the latest epa works of the 670s bc . By mpa the Geometric heritage had been forgotten. The...

block book

block book  

Reference type:
Overview Page
A fairly short-lived phenomenon, blockbooks were mainly produced in the Netherlands and Germany in the 1460s, some time after the invention of movable type, with which they attempted to compete. ...
Neumeister [Numeister], Johann

Neumeister [Numeister], Johann (b c.1430–40)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
120 words

...[Numeister], Johann ( b c. 1430–40 ; d 1512 ). German printer . Neumeister may have been a pupil of johann Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of Dante's Divine Comedy ( 1472 ). He subsequently worked in Mainz ( 1479 ) and then moved to France, first living in Albi, north-east of Toulouse ( 1480 ), and then settling in Lyon ( 1483 ), where his press was an important element in the development of Lyon as a printing centre. The best-known products of his press were his...

block-book

block-book   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art Terms (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
101 words

...Block-books appeared in northern Europe around the middle of the 15th century in Germany and the Netherlands. They were intended to spread stories from the Bible and other moralizing texts, in simple form, to the population at large. Block-books were soon superseded by Johann Gutenberg 's invention of moveable type cast in...

Schöffer, Peter

Schöffer, Peter (c.1425)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
242 words

...Peter ( b Gernsheim , c. 1425 ; d Mainz , c. 1503 ). German printer . By 1449 Schöffer was working as a scriptor (i.e. manuscript copyist) in Paris. He later married Dyna (or Christina), the daughter of johann Fust , and in 1466 succeeded his late father-in-law in his printing business in Mainz. He was, together with Johann Gutenberg , one of the earliest printers, and he is said to be the first printer to have developed a satisfactory method of stamping matrices. On 14 August 1457 Schöffer and Fust published the elegant Mainz Psalter , which...

Ratdolt, Erhard

Ratdolt, Erhard (1447)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
136 words

...Erhard ( b Augsburg , 1447 ; d Augsburg , 1527–8 ). German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt's many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated...

Printing

Printing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,315 words

...Martin : The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing, 1450–1800 (London, 1976) E. Eisenstein : The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, 1983) J. Ing : Johann Gutenberg and his Bible: A Historical Study (New York, 1988) R. L. Hills : Papermaking in Britain, 1488–1988: A Short History (London, 1988) For further bibliography see Gutenberg, johann...

typography

typography   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,638 words

...easy reproduction was not fully developed. Printing as it is known today began at Mainz where Johann Gutenberg d. 1468 , a metalsmith, invented a method for casting individual letters in metal and adapted a press for imprinting them. Gutenberg was a native of Mainz, active in Strasbourg in the 1430s and early 1440s, and by 1455 had printed, with the financial backing of Johann Fust, the first major work printed in Europe—a Bible commonly called the Gutenberg Bible, also known as the 42-line Bible owing to the number of lines per page. In the earlest...

Bible

Bible   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
842 words

...typography and ornament; and illustrated Bibles, in which subject-matter, graphic techniques and artistic impression play an important role ( see also Book illustration ). 1. Unillustrated Bibles. The first major book printed with movable metal type, the Gutenberg Bible ( c. 1455 ; see Gutenberg, johann ) is one of the great monuments of the art of the book. The high-quality materials, the geometrically proportioned layout and justified two-column text give it a harmonious appearance. The typography, which includes special characters that allow for subtle...

Printing

Printing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
7,003 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1488–1988: A Short History (London, 1988) J. Ing : Johann Gutenberg and his Bible: A Historical Study (New York, 1988) M. Twyman : Early Lithographed Books (London, 1990) S. Sabin : ‘The Great Age of Anhui Printing’, Shadows of Mt Huang: Chinese Painting and Printing of the Anhui School , ed. J. Cahill (Berkeley, CA, 1991) P. T. Daniels and W. Bright : The World's Writing Systems, Pt 13: Imprinting and Printing: Analog and Digital Writing (Oxford and New York, 1996) A. Kapr : Johann Gutenberg: The Man and his Invention (Aldershot and Brookfield,...

Poster

Poster   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
967 words

...attracted many artists to the poster and allowed it to be harnessed for a number of social purposes, such as the dissemination of information and propaganda; it has also made it one of the most significant forms of commercial art. Printing with movable type was invented by Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394/9–1468 ) between 1439 and 1444 ; however, William Caxton ( ?1427–92 ) printed the first notices in 1477 . The invention of Lithography by J. N. F. Alois Senefelder ( 1771–1834 ) in 1798–9 and the introduction in 1827 of chromolithography made...

Block-book

Block-book   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,266 words

...1. Origins. The earliest block-books from the heartland of northern Europe date probably from the middle of the 15th century. Around this time Johann Gutenberg in Mainz was perfecting printing by means of movable type that was cast in metal. Thus the uneven alignment of letters in the hand-cut line of text in the block-book was corrected by the typographic page, printed in a press. By the late 1470s Gutenberg's method gained total ascendancy, and the making of block-books ended, after only about 25 years. Thus the block-book was not the precursor of the...

Metalcut

Metalcut   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,810 words

...must have been fixed on wood, for the engravings all bear the mark of nail holes. They were made with a stamp and burin. The Stoeger Passion may well have been the first typographic book to be illustrated, only five years after the 42-line Bible (Mainz, c. 1455 ) of Johann Gutenberg. These metalcuts are characterized by their backgrounds decorated with arabesques, foliage or tapestry-like motifs. The more prolific Master of the Aix Annunciation, working in the Upper Rhineland c. 1460–70 , used tapestry backgrounds and secular subject-matter, rare in...

Metalcut

Metalcut   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
1,902 words

...must have been fixed on wood, for the engravings all bear the mark of nail holes. They were made with a stamp and burin. The Stoeger Passion may well have been the first typographic book to be illustrated, only five years after the 42-line Bible (Mainz, c. 1455 ) of Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394/9–1468 ). These metalcuts are characterized by their backgrounds decorated with arabesques, foliage or tapestry-like motifs. The more prolific Master of the Aix Annunciation, working in the Upper Rhineland c. 1460–70 , used tapestry backgrounds and secular...

Ink

Ink   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
6,729 words

...in Europe and the West required the development of oil-based inks. Aqueous vehicles will not spread uniformly and reliably on the metal surfaces of types and plates, and the process of movable type printing attributed to Johann Gutenberg c. 1450 depended on, among other things, the development of a suitable ink. The ink used in Gutenberg's productions is considered to be of very high quality, being densely black and free of an oily halo formation around the letters. Inks for typographic and other relief-printing generally used a lampblack as the pigment,...

Paper

Paper   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,647 words

...civilization. Nevertheless, papermaking was established in Italy in 1276 at Fabriano, which in the late 20th century still boasted papermaking facilities. A mill was recorded in operation in France by c. 1348 and in Germany by 1390 . The invention of movable type by Johann Gutenberg ( c. 1394/9–1468 ) c. 1440 eventually increased the demand for paper and loosened European prejudice against the material, although the most important documents continued to be inscribed on parchment in the medieval craft tradition. The spread across the continent was...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
24,121 words
Illustration(s):
1

... ( 1804–67 ), lineblock and photogravure, dye transfer and photocopy. (a) 15th–18th centuries. (b) 19th–20th centuries. (a) 15th–18th centuries. The earliest European colour printing appeared in the form of coloured woodcut initials in the Mainz Psalter ( 1457 ; Mainz, Gutenberg-Museum) of Johannes Fust ( c. 1400–66 ) and Peter Schöffer ( c. 1425–1502 ). Red and blue are used for the initials, which were probably removed from the forme (body of type set in the chase) before printing, individually coloured and replaced, to be printed with the main body...

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