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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
286 words

...Islamic fundamentalism Used in the English‐speaking world mainly to describe Islamic revivalist movements which profess strict adherence to the Quran and Islamic law, the Shariah. It emerged in reaction to Islamic reform movements during the first half of the twentieth century, which were considered to be infused with Western culture, and to the strong political influence of Western countries on the Arab states. Islamic fundamentalists have had considerable political success from the 1970s. In 1979 , a revolution brought the spiritual leader Ayatollah...

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism   Quick reference

Barbara Allen Roberson

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
984 words

... fundamentalism ( Islamism ) A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur’an and the Shari’a (Islamic Law). On the continent, as well as in Britain and amongst many scholars of Islam and the Middle East, there is a preference for terms such as ‘Islamism’, ‘Islamicism’, ‘Islamists’, or ‘Islamicists’ in referring to the current activist political trend. Islamism emerges out of the reform ( islah ) project of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that...

Islamic Fundamentalism: An Interpretation

Islamic Fundamentalism: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Fundamentalism: An Interpretation Although Islamic fundamentalist movements have attracted much attention since the success of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 —and, increasingly, since the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq that followed—they are not new nor have they ever been prevalent among Islamic societies. When they do emerge, these movements are more symptomatic of profound societal crises than a direct outcome of Islamic political and legal thought as such, or a common feature of all Islamic...

Islam in Africa

Islam in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... in Africa Expression of Islam in Africa, and the role of Africans in the spread and practice of the religion. For information on African Islamic political leaders: See Abd al-Qadir ; Bello , Ahmadu ; Idris I. African Islamic scholars: See Abd Allah ibn Yasin ; Ahmad Baba . Beliefs and traditions of Islam: See Islam and Tradition: An Interpretation . Specific aspects of Islam: See Feminism in Islamic Africa ; Islamic Fundamentalism: An Interpretation ; Islamic Salvation Front ; Marabout...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
122 words

...of Western methods, affirming instead the comprehensive and effective nature of the Islamic message. Some scholars believe that Islamic fundamentalism is a distinctively modern phenomenon, while others argue that activist movements advocating a return to pristine fundamentals of faith are evident throughout Islamic...

Ahmed, Akbar

Ahmed, Akbar   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
51 words

...Ahmed, Akbar Twentieth-century Pakistani Islamic scholar. Understands fundamentalism through the context of postmodernity, globalization, failure of modernist ideologies, revival of ethnic conflicts, and conflict between Islam and the West. Believes the greatest challenge facing Muslims is the preservation of Muslim identity and Quranic messages of tolerance, equality, and love of...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...it is important to keep fundamentalism distinct from evangelicism , the commitment to spreading Christian faith and the message of salvation—which is not necessarily tied to biblical literalism, notions of a purer, simpler faith, or to any particular politics. The term fundamentalism has been extended to other religions, as in Hindu fundamentalism or Islamic fundamentalism. In such usage, it remains marked by its origins in Christian Protestant polemics and is limited as an analogy. In the Islamic world, the term fundamentalism has been used to describe...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,765 words

...the many terms used for this purpose are Islamism, integrism, neo-normative Islam, neo-traditional Islam, Islamic revivalism, and Islamic nativism. However, “fundamentalism” remains a commonly utilized identification of the various revivalist impulses among Muslims. More technically accurate expressions and neologisms have not replaced the term. The description and analysis of Islamic fundamentalism in the modern era gives rise to many debates. Among the most important of these is whether Islamic fundamentalism is a distinctively modern phenomenon. Such...

Islamist

Islamist   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
65 words

...Islamist Term used to describe an Islamic political or social activist. Coined in preference to the more common term “Islamic fundamentalist.” Islamists (al-Islamiyyun) are committed to implementation of their ideological vision of Islam in the state and/or society. Their position is often seen as a critique of the establishment and status quo. Most belong to Islamic organizations or social movements (al-harakat al-Islamiyyah). See also ...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. 1 a form of Protestant Christianity that upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible, including its narratives, doctrines, prophecies, and moral laws. 2 strict maintenance of ancient or fundamental doctrines of any religion or ideology, notably Islam. fundamentalist n. &...

Natsir, Mohammad

Natsir, Mohammad (1993)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
119 words

...scriptural tradition of classical Islam was essential for the modernization of Muslim societies. Understood the nation-state as a tool for constructing Islamic society. Emphasized the relationship between a just society and the rewards of heaven, using the Quran and Muhammad 's example as a sociological model for achieving both. Devoted in his younger years to Indonesian nationalism, development, and the struggle to establish a more explicitly Islamic social system; later was the most outspoken proponent of fundamentalism in contemporary Indonesia. Blamed...

Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS)

Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
168 words

...alterations in the federal constitution to bring it more into line with traditional Islamic law and administration, and criticized the government's policies as being devoid of spiritual values. Since 1982 it has given priority to reformist Islamic goals and downplayed Malay nationalism. Led by Islamists today, its strength lies in rural Malay peasants and traditional village leaders, who are not always receptive to fundamentalism. Main rival to the United Malays National Organization. Formed governments in Kelantan and Trengannu in the 1990s. Its fortunes have...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
413 words

...rejected as pejorative. J. I. Packer , ‘Fundamentalism’ and the Word of God (1958); E. R. Sandeen , The Roots of Fundamentalism: British and American Millenarianism 1800–1930 (1970); G. M. Marsden , Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism: 1870–1925 (New York and Oxford, 1980); J. Barr , Fundamentalism (1977; 2nd edn., 1981); id., Escaping from Fundamentalism (1984). K. Armstrong , The Battle for God: Fundamentalism in Judaism, Christianity and Islam ...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
153 words

... . In general, a description of those who return to what they believe to be the fundamental truths and practices of a religion. It can thus be applied to this attitude in all religions (e.g. the resurgence of conservative Islam is sometimes called ‘Islamic fundamentalism’). But this use is often resented by such people, because of its more usual identification with those, in Christianity, who defend the Bible against charges that it contains any kind of error. More specifically, it denotes the view of Protestant Christians opposed to the...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,029 words

... 11 September 2001 brought this particular epistemology into strong relief through the antagonistic actions of Islamic fundamentalists. The designation of “fundamentalism” within Islam is not an easy one. Since the vast majority of believing Muslims are qur᾽anic inerrantists, textual inerrancy is not a useful definitional prism for Islamic fundamentalism. Instead, the focus must be on the social cohesion formed through the particular goal of Islamic fundamentalists: the removal of corrupt or pro-Western governments. Rather than live under governments ordered...

Hizb-i Islami (Afghanistan)

Hizb-i Islami (Afghanistan)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
69 words

...movement created and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Maulavi Yunus Khales . Active in the Afghan war, 1978–92 . Broken into factions. Ideology combines scriptural fundamentalism with revolutionary practice. Was supported financially, logistically, and militarily by Iran, Pakistan, and the United States until the collapse of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. Was excluded from the Islamically oriented coalition government that came to power in 1992...

Salafiy(y)a

Salafiy(y)a   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
66 words

.... Movement founded by Jamal al-Din al-Afghānī and Muḥammad ʿAbduh , which sought to reconcile Islam with the advances of Western science and rationality. It received its name from the phrase salaf al-ṣāliḥīn, ‘the virtuous ancestors’, but it was not regarded by its opponents as preserving the essence of the past, but rather as subverting it. In contrast, the same word is now used to translate ‘fundamentalism...

Uṣūl

Uṣūl   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
68 words

...(Arab. pl. of aṣl ). Root or principle. In Islam, the word is used for a branch of learning, especially uṣūl al- hadīth , uṣūl al- fīqh , and uṣūl al- kalām (earlier uṣūl al-dīn); and also for the sources of those disciplines, Qurʾān , ḥadīth (together, sunna ), ijmaʿ , and qiyās at least: claims to further sources would be disputed. Uṣūliy(y)a is used for what in English might be called fundamentalism...

Mubarak, Hosni

Mubarak, Hosni (1928)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
99 words

...president ( 1975–81 ) under Anwar Sadat , and became president on his assassination. Mubarak continued Sadat's moderate policies, improving relations with Israel and the West. He gained Egypt's readmission to the Arab League in 1989 , but struggled to stem the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt. He resigned as president in 2011 and in 2012 was sentenced to life imprisonment for complicity in the deaths of some demonstrators. However, a retrial was ordered in 2013 and Mubarak was released. In 2014 he was found guilty of...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
69 words

... ( religious ) A movement or belief calling for a return to the basic texts or ‘fundamentals’ of revealed religion—usually contrasted, therefore, with modernism and liberalism in religion. The term has been applied to Protestant trends within Christianity , since the 1920s, and recently to trends within Islam . Despite its theological character it is usually linked to projects of social reform and the acquisition of political...

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