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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
69 words

... ( religious ) A movement or belief calling for a return to the basic texts or ‘fundamentals’ of revealed religion—usually contrasted, therefore, with modernism and liberalism in religion. The term has been applied to Protestant trends within Christianity , since the 1920s, and recently to trends within Islam . Despite its theological character it is usually linked to projects of social reform and the acquisition of political...

Gender Equality

Gender Equality   Reference library

Elizabeth L. Young and Fatma Müge Göçek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,673 words

...keeping with Islamic tradition. Not only would education improve family life and public morality, but universal primary education was a necessity for Egypt's political and economic development. Qāsim Amīn, writing nearly half a century later, echoed al-Ṭahṭāwī's call for women's basic education on the basis of its societal benefit. Additionally, in The Liberation of Women , he argued that seclusion and the veiling of the face had no basis in the Qurʾān or Sharīʿah. Islamic Fundamentalism. In contrast to Islamic modernism, Islamic fundamentalism has provided...

Women Living under Muslim Laws

Women Living under Muslim Laws   Reference library

Valentine M. Moghadam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
702 words

...Committee of Women Living under Muslim Laws to critique patriarchal family laws and growing fundamentalism. By early 1985, the committee had evolved into an international network of information, solidarity, and support, and Helie Lucas became the guiding light behind the WLUML network. Individuals and groups associated with the network have included Farida Shaheed and Khawar Mumtaz of Pakistan's Shirkat Gah, Ayesha Imam of Nigeria's Baobob, Malaysia's Sisters in Islam, and Salma Sobhan of Bangladesh. Since the first planning meeting in July 1986, WLUML has...

Ghazālī, Zaynab al-

Ghazālī, Zaynab al- (1917–2005)   Reference library

Valerie J. Hoffman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,834 words

...In Islam, Gender and Social Change , edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito , pp. 85–99. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. Hoffman, Valerie J. “An Islamic Activist: Zaynab al-Ghazâlî.” In Women and the Family in the Middle East: New Voices of Change , edited by Elizabeth Warnock Fernea , pp. 233–254. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985. Hoffman, Valerie J. Interviews with Zaynab al-Ghazālī. June 1981 and September 13, 1988. Hoffman, Valerie J. “Muslim Fundamentalists: Psychosocial Profiles.” In Fundamentalisms...

Malaysia

Malaysia   Reference library

Sylva Frisk

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,575 words

...and the Women's Movement in Malaysia: An Unsung (R)evolution . New York: Routledge, 2006. Ong, Aihwa . “State versus Islam: Malay Families, Women's Bodies and the Body Politic in Malaysia.” In Bewitching Women, Pious Men: Gender and Body Politics in Southeast Asia , edited by Aihwa Ong and Michael G. Peletz , pp. 170–192. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995. Othman, Norani . “Muslim Women and the Challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism/Extremism: An Overview of Southeast Asian Muslim Women's Struggle for Human Rights and Gender Equality.” Women's...

Sunnī Islam and Women

Sunnī Islam and Women   Reference library

Els Vanderwaeren and Sariya Cheruvallil-Contractor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,350 words

...In Women, Leadership, and Mosques: Changes in Contemporary Islamic Authority , edited by Masooda Bano and Hilary Kalmbach , pp. 1–30. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Lopez-Claros, Augusto , and Saadia Zahidi . Women's Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap . Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2005. Mahmood, Saba . Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Object . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005. Moghissi, Haideh . Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The Limits of Postmodern Analysis . London: Zed, 1999. Mukadam,...

Gender Studies and Women

Gender Studies and Women   Reference library

Natana J. DeLong-Bas and Souad T. Ali

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
10,644 words

.... Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992. Ahmed, Leila . A Quiet Revolution: The Veil's Resurgence, from the Middle East to America. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2011. Ali, Souad T. “Women in Islam and Civil Society: An Overview of the Disparity between Religion and Culture.” In A Lecture on Gender Issues , pp. 107–121. Kosovo: Kosovar Gender Studies Centre (KGSC) 107–121, 2010. Badran, Margot .“Understanding Islam, Islamism and Islamic Fundamentalism.” Journal of Women's...

Southeast Asia and the Pacific

Southeast Asia and the Pacific   Reference library

Claudia Merli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,472 words

...Ethics, NGOs, and Bio-Welfare.” Hawwa: Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World 9, no. 1 (January 2011): 26–48. Othman, Norani . “Muslim Women and the Challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism/Extremism: An Overview of Southeast Asian Muslim Women's Struggle for Human Rights and Gender Equality.” Women's Studies International Forum 29, no. 4 (July 2006): 339–353. Preeda Prapertchob . “Islam and Civil Society in Thailand: The Role of NGOs.” In Islam and Civil Society in Southeast Asia , edited by Nakamura Mitsuo , Sharon Siddique , and ...

Education and Women

Education and Women   Reference library

Rebecca McLain Hodges, Dina Sijamhodžić-Nadarević, Soudeh Oladi, and Roja Fazaeli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,456 words

...with Muslims. The democratization of authority in Islam with mass literacy, immigration, and communication technology like the Internet, has popularized the authority to speak for Islam. These issues are related to the major debates about appropriate roles for women in society, gender segregation, the role of the state, and new communication technologies. The debates about education of women in Islam generally fall into three major groups: modernism/progressivism, Muslim feminism, Islamic fundamentalism. The modernist/progressivist discourse tends to favor...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

Benjamin B. DeVan, Dale F. Eickelman, Abbas Jaffer, Bianca J. Smith, Charles C. Stewart, and Zahraa McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,884 words

...of the effects of urbanization and the impact of religious fundamentalism, Muslim women in South Asia continue to imbue their day-to-day lives and communities with religious devotion and meaning-making. Bibliography Abbas, Shemeem B. The Female Voice in Sufi Ritual: Devotional Practices of Pakistan and India . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003. Aftab, Tahera . Inscribing South Asian Muslim Women: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Guide . Boston: Brill, 2008. Metcalf, Barbara . Islam in South Asia in Practice . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton...

Political Activism, Women's

Political Activism, Women's   Reference library

Sarah Fischer and Valentine M. Moghadam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,792 words

...agenda of Ayatollah Khomeini did not expect the harsh laws, political repression, and systematic discrimination against women that characterized Islamization in the 1980s. Here political Islam overtook and eventually eliminated the liberal nationalism and revolutionary Marxism of the anti-shah coalition. Fundamentalism, Political Islam, and Women's Activism. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism and political Islam has significantly affected women throughout the Muslim world, and women themselves have been divided for and against these movements. Whether...

Arabic Literature

Arabic Literature   Reference library

Rebecca Gould, miriam cooke, and Caroline Seymour-Jorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,522 words

...Arabic literature, educated in Enlightenment values and norms, eschewed religious topics, early twenty-first century littérateurs are finding inspiration for new engagement with Islam. Of note is the Egyptian ʿAlāʾ al-Aswāny's best-selling novel ʿ Imārat Ya ʿ qūbyān ( The Yacoubian Building , 2002 ; trans. 2004 ), which provides a sweeping critique of Islamic fundamentalism and corruption at several levels of Egyptian society. Sometimes described as pulp fiction in part for its treatment of homosexuality, the novel takes on issues of gender and sexuality...

Business Ownership and Women: Historical and Contemporary Practice

Business Ownership and Women: Historical and Contemporary Practice   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
3,122 words

...Gender Research.” Feminist Studies 31.3 (2005): 653–679. Joireman, S. F. “The Mystery of Capital Formation in sub-Saharan Africa: Women, Property Rights and Customary Law.” World Development , 36.7 (2007). Moallam, M. Between Warrior Brother and Veiled Sister: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Politics of Patriarchy . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. Mohanty, Chantra . “Under the Western Eyes in Signs” Journal of Women in Culture and Society , 28.2 (2002), Olmsted, J. C. “Is Paid Work the (Only) Answer? Women's Well-being, Neoliberalism...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

..., Faqihuddin Abdul Kodir , Lies Marcoes Natsir , and Marzuki Wahid , eds. Dawrah Fiqh Concerning Women: Manual for a Course on Islam and Gender . Translated by Marlene Indro Nugroho-Heins. Cirebon, Indonesia: Fahmina Institute, 2006. Mulia, Siti Musdah . Islam dan Inspirasi Kesetaraan Gender . Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Kibar, 2007. See esp. pp. 131–149. Othman, Norani . “Muslim Women and The Challenge of Islamic Fundamentalism/Extremism: An Overview of Southeast Asian Muslim Women's Struggle for Human Rights and Gender Equality.” Women's Studies...

Women and Islam

Women and Islam   Reference library

Soraya Altorki, Zayn Kassam, and Valerie J. Hoffman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,331 words

...and Row, 1980. Gemmeke, Amber B. “Marabout Women in Dakar: Creating Authority in Islamic Knowledge.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 79, no. 1 (2009): 128–147. Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck , Jane I. Smith , and Kathleen M. Moore , eds. Muslim Women in America: The Challenge of Islamic Identity Today . New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Haeri, Shahla . “Obedience vs. Autonomy: Women and Fundamentalism in Iran and Pakistan.” In Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, the Family, and Education , edited by Martin E....

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Goolam Vahed

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,883 words

...2007. Katircioglu has also sought permission to open the first Islamic university in South Africa. This return to the roots on the part of many women does not mark a turn to the kind of “fundamentalism” that conservatives and policymakers in the Western world imagine. The process of re-Islamization is largely an attempt to create privatized Islamic spaces; few Muslims harbor any realistic ambitions of Islamizing the state. There are intense internal and external debates over issues of correct Islamic rituals and practices. A conspicuous feature of this period...

Rawz̤ah Khvānī

Rawz̤ah Khvānī   Reference library

Gustav Thaiss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,828 words

...with the rawz̤ah are being reevaluated by the lay public and pious Shīʿīs, who criticize them as un-Islamic and “ignorant” customs that are religious anachronisms incompatible with a modern nation-state. Such attitudes are also an aspect of a reformist Islam that seeks to purify the faith of folk beliefs and practices. Many such criticisms are directed at the reciters themselves who, generally, are poorly educated and limited in their formal knowledge of Islam and often have rather “mythical” understandings of the events at Karbala. Younger, pious Muslims tend...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Augustus Richard Norton, Joseph Kéchichian, and Minerva Nasser-Eddine

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
2,376 words

...appalled by the terrorist attacks of 9/11. This was reinforced in a 2002 survey conducted by the Pew Institute, which found that respondents who believed that Islam was under threat were more likely to support terrorism than those who did not ( Fair and Shephard, 2007 ). Many terrorists have been motivated by issues of territory, politics, and economic and social rights. Islamic fundamentalism or religious ideology is not a common factor ( Pape, 2003 ). Juergensmeyer ( 2003 ) argues that, although religion has played an important role (providing moral...

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking

Internet, Blogs, and Social Networking   Reference library

Anna Piela

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,724 words

...or linguistic. Thus it is difficult to talk about a homogenous “Islamic online community.” Women's Political Cyberactivism. Afghanistan. The Internet mobilization by Muslim women for political purposes dates as far back as 1997 , when the official Web site of the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) was founded. Since then, the organization (itself existing since 1977 ) has been able to communicate its goals (“Afghan women's freedom from the clutch of fundamentalism, occupation and patriarchy”; increasing the involvement of women...

Shīʿī Islam and Women

Shīʿī Islam and Women   Reference library

Moojan Momen and Kamran Scot Aghaie

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
7,418 words

...Performance and Symbolic Discourses in Modern Shiʿi Islam . Austin: University of Texas Press, 2005. Although primarily about women's experience of the Karbala rituals in the present, the first two chapters (by Negar Mottahedeh and Kamran Scott Aghaie) deal with the Qājār period. Ahmed, Leila . Women and Gender in Islam . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1992. A key foundational work on women and Islam but concentrates mainly on Sunni Islam. Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali . The Spirituality of Shiʿi Islam . London: I. B. Tauris, 2011. Although this book is...

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