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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism   Quick reference

Barbara Allen Roberson

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
984 words

... fundamentalism ( Islamism ) A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur’an and the Shari’a (Islamic Law). On the continent, as well as in Britain and amongst many scholars of Islam and the Middle East, there is a preference for terms such as ‘Islamism’, ‘Islamicism’, ‘Islamists’, or ‘Islamicists’ in referring to the current activist political trend. Islamism emerges out of the reform ( islah ) project of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that...

Islamic Fundamentalism: An Interpretation

Islamic Fundamentalism: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... Fundamentalism: An Interpretation Although Islamic fundamentalist movements have attracted much attention since the success of the Iranian Revolution of 1979 —and, increasingly, since the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq that followed—they are not new nor have they ever been prevalent among Islamic societies. When they do emerge, these movements are more symptomatic of profound societal crises than a direct outcome of Islamic political and legal thought as such, or a common feature of all Islamic...

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism  

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On the ...
Hosni Mubarak

Hosni Mubarak  

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(1928– )Egyptian statesman, President since 1981. Appointed head of the Egyptian air force in 1972, Mubarak became Vice-President in 1975 and succeeded President Sadat following the latter's ...
Chadli Benjedid

Chadli Benjedid  

1929– Third president of Algeria.Chadli Benjedid grew up in the Annaba region of colonial Algeria, then joined the military wing of the national liberation group, the Front de Libération ...
clash of Civilizations

clash of Civilizations  

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A concept first used by Samuel Huntington (1927–2008) in a 1993 Foreign Affairs article. He argued that, in the context of the end of the Cold War, conflict in international relations increasingly ...
Islam Abduganievich Karimov

Islam Abduganievich Karimov  

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(b. Samarkand, 30 Jan. 1938)Uzbek; President of Uzbekistan 1990– Karimov started his career working in the Tashkent Aviation Factory. He joined the Communist Party in 1964. From 1966 to 1983 he ...
pan-Arabism

pan-Arabism  

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Overview Page
The idea that the Arabs are a distinct people with a common language, history, and culture. Pan‐Arabism emerged in the former Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire. When the shock of the disappearance ...
Eritrea

Eritrea  

A country in north-eastern Africa, on the Red Sea.Physical.Eritrea consists of a narrow coastal low-lying area and rises towards the Ethiopian plateau in the south. It is very hot and ...
fundamentalism

fundamentalism  

Dictionary of the Social Sciences

Reference type:
Subject Reference

...it is important to keep fundamentalism distinct from evangelicism , the commitment to spreading Christian faith and the message of salvation—which is not necessarily tied to biblical literalism, notions of a purer, simpler faith, or to any particular politics. The term fundamentalism has been extended to other religions, as in Hindu fundamentalism or Islamic fundamentalism. In such usage, it remains marked by its origins in Christian Protestant polemics and is limited as an analogy. In the Islamic world, the term fundamentalism has been used to describe...

Islamic Ethics and Peace

Islamic Ethics and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,472 words

...to the militants and ending their estrangement with Islam’s legal and historical ethics of peace. [ See also Ethics of War and Peace , subentry on Middle Ages ; Human Rights , subentry on Political Concept ; Islam ; Just War, Theory; Nonviolent Action , subentry on Nonviolent Action as Active Resistance ; Religion and Peace ; Religious Peace Doctrines, Comparative ; State Formation and War ; and Treaties ] Bibliography Dakake, David . The Myth of a Militant Islam. In Islam, Fundamentalism and the Betrayal of Tradition: Essays by Western...

Religious and Ethnic Divisions: Role of Peacemaking

Religious and Ethnic Divisions: Role of Peacemaking   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,998 words

...thousand men. This army of Muslims was comprised of the Pushtuns, the ethnic group that later formed the basis of the Taliban, a brutal and sometimes violent group of students ( Taliban in Arabic) from religious schools ( madrasah s) who were taught an extreme form of Islamic fundamentalism, resulting in religious extremism. Robert Johansen ( 1997 ) found that, decades earlier, under Ghaffer Khan’s leadership, members of this very same ethnic group exhibited selfless military discipline in nonviolently protecting Hindus and Sikhs from angry Muslim mobs...

East-West Conflicts

East-West Conflicts   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,980 words

...after all, an ally. China’s economic boom was just beginning, and its military expenditures were far behind those of the United States; India remained a mere shadow. Islam was dangerous to use as enemy when many major U.S. allies or friends had predominantly Muslim populations and some of them also had a large amount of oil. After September 11, 2001 , “Islamism,” or “Islamic fundamentalism,” came to be strongly linked with “terrorism” in official thinking, and ultimately the “War on Terror” filled the void. This need to find an enemy made the “clash of...

Catholic Peace Traditions

Catholic Peace Traditions   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,928 words

...Christian West. The apocalyptic “vision of peace” ( visio pacis ) added the image of the New Jerusalem—the ideal society and the new people of God who embody peacemaking. Such apocalyptism contrasts with the violent, exclusionary stereotypes associated with recent Christian fundamentalisms. 2. The Early Church (to ca. 500 ce ) saw Christianity’s accommodation to the realities of Roman imperial rule in most aspects of social, cultural, and intellectual life (Origen, Eusebius, Ambrose, Augustine). Gospel nonviolence remained one of the few areas in which...

Resources and Economic Conversion

Resources and Economic Conversion   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,414 words

...India, it is still unclear to what degree their recent extraordinary levels of economic growth were aided or hampered by governmental defense conversion efforts (Markusen et al. 2003 ). Future Issues In the United States, the Second Gulf War and the perceived threat of Islamic fundamentalism have shifted attention away from defense conversion as a public policy goal. Insofar as private contractors have furnished an unprecedented array of battlefield support services, the twenty-first century, if anything, has seen a revival of the American military-industrial...

Globalization and Peace Issues

Globalization and Peace Issues   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
4,208 words

...institutions have increasingly narrowed their regulatory scope to the liberalization of markets and the extension of the market into more and more areas of life, irrespective of their potential political or cultural repercussions. This single-minded pursuit of “market fundamentalism” (Soros 2004 ), coined neo-liberalism, has deepened the divide both within and between nations, marked by those who have gained in wealth, power, and status as the result of the new liberal world order, and those who have not. Yawning economic, political, and cultural...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
69 words

... ( religious ) A movement or belief calling for a return to the basic texts or ‘fundamentals’ of revealed religion—usually contrasted, therefore, with modernism and liberalism in religion. The term has been applied to Protestant trends within Christianity , since the 1920s, and recently to trends within Islam . Despite its theological character it is usually linked to projects of social reform and the acquisition of political...

Iran

Iran   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
127 words

... fundamentalism has been important since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 . The Iranian government is also implicated with geopolitical developments in other countries of the region and endured a long and bloody war with neighbouring Iraq throughout the...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,599 words

... Fundamentalism is a deep and total commitment to a particular religious creed, involving a return to supposed fundamentals, away from doctrinal compromises with modern social and political life. The term is used to describe a wide range of political and religious phenomena, including Protestant denominations, Jewish groups, Buddhist movements, Hindu political parties, and Islamic governments. The term has its origins in US religious history. In the early twentieth century, fundamentalism arose as a US Protestant movement, guided by the doctrine...

jihad

jihad   Quick reference

Justa Hopma

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
212 words

...increasingly embraced a militant version of Islam in which the overthrow of existing order—rather than attempts to revise it or establish parallel societal alternatives—is the primary objective. Others have developed such ideas further, often relying on extremely selective interpretations of existing texts. It is through such connections that the link between Islam and violence has been elaborated in, for example, the ideology of militant Islamic groups and in areas of Islamic fundamentalism . Justa...

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