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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī al-Dīn

Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī al-Dīn (1263–1328)   Reference library

Ronald L. Nettler and M. Sait Özervarli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
1,682 words

...on qiyās (analogical reasoning). Modern studies highlight Ibn Taymīyah’s traditionalism and his influence on contemporary Salafism, and generally neglect the critical and rational aspects of his thought. He is usually charged with being the main source of Islamic radicalism or modern fundamentalism. However, as a renewer of the traditionalist school ( aṣḥāb al-ḥadīth ), his views on the agreement of reason and revelation in particular are quite detailed. Being aware of the methodological shift in Sunnī theology and the influence of Avicennan philosophy on...

antiscience

antiscience   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,047 words

...with the rejection of the Enlightenment values of reason and secularism is the essence of “reactionary modernity,” first seen in Nazi Germany. State-sponsored antiscience movements flourish once again—this time in societies that have taken a turn to religious nationalism or fundamentalism. The Hindu nationalist government in India, for example, announced in March 2001 its decision to teach Vedic astrology as a part of the science curriculum in public sector colleges and universities. The Indian government is also sponsoring “research” on the practice of...

drama

drama   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,466 words

...in the 16th century. Puritan revulsion against the theatre reached its climax in England when all theatres were kept closed under the Commonwealth from 1648 to 1660 . Islam did not favour dramatic performances for a great part of its history either; it saw them as attempts to create an alternative reality to God's creation. To be sure, fundamentalism has not stifled religious drama in the Islamic world altogether. In Iran the taziyeh , a kind of Passion Play, has been developing since the 18th century as an annual commemoration of the martyrdom in 680 of...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Laurel D. KEARNS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
2,974 words

... Fundamentalism Fundamentalism is a term loaded with connotations, but it is basically used to describe groups that demand a strict adherence to a basic set of principles and are to some degree aggressive in their defense. The term is usually used in reference to religious groups, but sometimes it may describe nonreligious groups or social movements. There is no definitive type of fundamentalism that can be applied to all of the various manifestations of twentieth-century religious movements that respond to modernization (or the incursion of certain...

Afghanistan

Afghanistan (2012)   Reference library

Charles C. KOLB

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,163 words

... Nytrop, Richard F. , & Seekins, Donald M. (Eds.). (1986). Afghanistan: A country study (5th ed.). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. Rashid, Ahmed . (2010). Taliban: Militant Islam, oil and fundamentalism in central Asia (2nd ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Rout, Bob . (2008). Water management, livestock and the opium economy: How the water flows: A typology of irrigation systems in Afghanistan . Kabul, Afghanistan: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit...

Religious Identity, Beliefs, and Views about Climate Change

Religious Identity, Beliefs, and Views about Climate Change   Reference library

Sonya Sachdeva

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...ECI . (2006). Evangelical Climate Initiative (ECI). Retrieved February 10, 2016, from http://www.aeseonline.org/aeseonline.org/Evangelical_Climate_Initiative.html Eckberg, D. L. , & Blocker, T. J. (1996). Christianity, environmentalism, and the theoretical problem of fundamentalism . Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion , 35 (4), 343–355. Eliade, M. (1968). The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Emmons, R. A. , & Paloutzian, R. F. (2003). The Psychology of Religion . Annual Review of Psychology ,...

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