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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Tunisia

Tunisia  

Tunisians have traded democratic freedoms for economic and political stabilityTunisia can be divided into four main geographical regions. The northern one-third of the country consists of spurs of ...
Islam

Islam   Reference library

Philip Kennedy

The Oxford Companion to Wine (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,430 words

...Wine (in Arabic khamr ) was not prohibited from the outset of the Prophet Muhammad’s preaching (between 610 and 632). Islam, both dogma and practice, emerged initially as the product of continuous revelation (the Qurʾān, often spelt Koran) during the Prophet’s lifetime and his responses to the vicissitudes of the early Islamic community (these are recorded in the hadīth literature and constitute the second most substantive source of Islamic law). There are four verses in the Qurʾān which refer to wine; the first is quite positive ( Sūra 16, verse 69): ‘We...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
15,946 words
Illustration(s):
1

...had profound repercussions for the Arab and Muslim world, which continue to affect the region's political and social development. This was the first European conquest of a major Arab country in the history of Islam, and it signaled the rapid decline of Islam as a world political power. Some analysts even trace contemporary Muslim fundamentalism to this initial shattering defeat. The French occupation, defeat, and withdrawal destabilized Egypt and left it vulnerable to an internal political struggle that was won by Mohammed Ali , an Albanian lieutenant in...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to men and photographers, as a continuation of harem seclusion. Meanwhile, fundamentalists are equally unhappy, warning against the subversion of traditional Islamic values by “obscene Western values.” [The younger generation among Iranian government officials and administrators, who are more open to the West, are working to create their own complete and comprehensive version of Islamic fundamentalism that will rival Western liberalism and be viewed as better than it and other alternatives ( The New York Times 1994 ). ( End of update by R. T. Francoeur )]...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,811 words
Illustration(s):
1

...although some vague reminiscences of the ancient pagan tradition are adding some nuances. The common Bulgarian folk have not been famous for their religiousness. As a rule, the religious doctrine is subject to rather down-to-earth interpretations, and fanaticism or fundamentalism is not prized at all. The restrictive attitude toward sexuality has vanished with the patriarchal morality. B. Source and Character of Ethnic Values The contemporary Bulgarian nation is a highly rich ethnic blend. Various cultures with their specific ethics have met and...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
22,090 words
Illustration(s):
1

...impossible to conquer Russia by military force. … Now they want to annihilate our people with the help of depravity, pornography, drugs, tobacco and vodka—by the same means by which THEIR forefathers annihilated American Indians. ( Slovok Podrostkam 2000 ) Militant Orthodox fundamentalism is not limited to sex education. There is even a protest movement against the introduction of national social security code numbers (these codes are named INN, so the movement is called “INN jihad”—Muslim sacred war). Its radical wing claimed that “the idea of a compulsory...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...rivalries—whereas the religious motivations, such as the Islamic fundamentalism ascribed to the 9/11 terrorists, seem incongruous with the way most Americans view religion and the efforts needed to impose it and its sexual and gender ethic on everyone. The sole exception in the United States seems to be the Christian-fundamentalist anti-abortion terrorists who attack abortion clinics and sometimes kill clinic workers, albeit on a much smaller scale than the worldwide attacks of the Islamic extremists. Still, abortion terrorists have helped to restrict...

Mysticism and myth

Mysticism and myth   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...God in En Sof (“Endless”). And the God of the Islamic Sufis is not much different. Mystics have traditionally worked from established traditions. They have used Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Daoism , Shinto , and so-called pagan systems as vehicles to move toward a center, to which they have applied many terms. Mysticism is frequently undermined by the dominant forces within established religions. Exclusivity, hierarchy, competition, the conquering hero, and especially fundamentalism do not mix well with the inner path. Mystics have...

The War on Terror and South Asian American Narrative Representation

The War on Terror and South Asian American Narrative Representation   Reference library

Anantha Sudhakar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...as the “Muslim disaffection” with America that Pankaj Mishra wryly calls “the urgent subject of the post 9/11 era.” 18 Consistently, these novels directly confront Islamic fundamentalism by fixating on terrorist consciousness. Updike’s novel, Terrorist ( 2006 ), for example, follows the evolution of a mixed-race Irish-Egyptian American teenager named Ahmad Ashmawy Mulloy, whose devotion to Islam and disdain toward American secularism leads him to participate in a plot to bomb the Lincoln Tunnel. 19 As Richard Gray argues, novels such as Updike’s fail to...

Christian mythology

Christian mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...Land” beyond the Hebrew race, Jewish religion, or land of Canaan to the world at large. To the extent that the religion has insisted over the centuries that its way is the only way and that its myths are literal truth, it has developed a militancy and a tendency toward fundamentalism that has often placed it at odds with the actual teachings of its de facto founder by instigating or supporting violence, abuse, and repression. Although the early Christians, given their Jewish roots, incorporated the Genesis creation into their mythology, they were also...

New mythology

New mythology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Mythology

...and denials of religious fundamentalism, as the human race has evolved, so has its understanding of creation. The understanding of creation has generally followed the conception of divinity. It is logical enough, therefore, that ancient agricultural societies envisioned a female Earth giving birth to life through fertilization by a male Sun . Later war-driven societies would just as logically have understood creation as the ex nihilo work of the given dominant divine warrior or supreme being while the Greek philosophers, Islamic faylusufs , and ...

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