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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Islamism

Islamism  

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Term used to describe an Islamic political or social activist. Coined in preference to the more common term “Islamic fundamentalist.” Islamists (al-Islamiyyun) are committed to implementation of ...
Akbar Ahmed

Akbar Ahmed  

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Twentieth-century Pakistani Islamic scholar. Understands fundamentalism through the context of postmodernity, globalization, failure of modernist ideologies, revival of ethnic conflicts, and conflict ...
Muhammad al- Ghazali

Muhammad al- Ghazali  

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(d. 1996)Egyptian religious scholar and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Served as director of the Mosques Department, director general of Islamic Call, and undersecretary of the ...
Partai Islam Se-Malaysia

Partai Islam Se-Malaysia  

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Islamic Party of Malaysia. Formed in 1951 by members of three political parties (Malay Nationalist Party, Hizbul Muslimin, and United Malays National Organization) and registered as a political party ...
Mohammad Natsir

Mohammad Natsir  

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(d. 1993)Indonesian intellectual, writer, nationalist, journalist, and politician. Held that a return to the intellectual and scriptural tradition of classical Islam was essential for the ...
Islamic Salvation Front

Islamic Salvation Front  

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Algerian Islamist party (Front Islamique du Salut, FIS). Founded in 1989 by Abbasi Madani, Ali Bel Hadj, and al-Hashimi Sahnuni, the FIS eschewed democratic structures; Bel Hajj and Sahnuni in ...
fundamentalism

fundamentalism  

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A form of Protestant Christianity which upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible, including its narratives, doctrines, prophecies, and moral laws. Also, strict maintenance ...
Sarekat Islam

Sarekat Islam  

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An Indonesian Islamic political organization. Formed in 1911 as an association of Javanese batik traders to protect themselves against Chinese competition, it had developed, by the time of its first ...
Islah

Islah  

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Reform. Typically used to describe reform movements from the eighteenth century through the present. Based on the belief that historical misunderstandings and misinterpretations have distorted the ...
al- Jamaah al-Islamiyyah

al- Jamaah al-Islamiyyah  

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Islamic Society. Major Sunni organization founded in the early 1960s in Tripoli, Lebanon, as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood, although it quickly spread to other cities. Led by laypeople. ...
Ideology and Islam

Ideology and Islam  

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Most Muslims claim that “Islam is one” and offers a blueprint for all aspects of life. Islam increasingly occupies a special place in school curricula, and states seek to control what is said in ...
Abdurrahman Wahid

Abdurrahman Wahid  

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(1940–2009)Also known as Gus Dur. Indonesian Islamic thinker, writer, and politician. Elected president of Indonesia in 1998 and replaced by parliamentary vote in 2000. Chair of the Executive Council ...
Ḥizb-i Islāmī Afghānistān

Ḥizb-i Islāmī Afghānistān  

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Afghan political movement created and led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and Maulavi Yunus Khales. Active in the Afghan war, 1978–92. Broken into factions. Ideology combines scriptural fundamentalism with ...
United Malays National Organization

United Malays National Organization  

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Ethnic Malay party founded in 1946. Has been a dominant political force in Malaysia. Seeks to protect and promote Malay political, sociocultural, religious, and economic interests. Under the ...
Revival and Renewal

Revival and Renewal  

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The Arabic terms ihya (revival) and tajdid (renewal) are typically used in the context of modern Islamic movements, although they have premodern roots. Premodern renewal was usually associated with a ...
Uṣūl

Uṣūl  

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(Arab. pl. of aṣl).Root or principle. In Islam, the word is used for a branch of learning, especially uṣūl al-hadīth, uṣūl al-fīqh, and uṣūl al-kalām (earlier uṣūl al-dīn); and ...
Jahiliya

Jahiliya  

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(Arab., jāhil, ‘untaught’).The state of ignorance understood to have characterized Arabian society prior to Islam. The jāhil is the ignorant person with (because of lack of the truth) an ...
Ḥizbullāh

Ḥizbullāh  

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An extremist Shiite Muslim group which has close links with Iran, created after the Iranian revolution of 1979 and active especially in Lebanon. The name comes from Arabic ḥizbullāh ‘Party of God’.
Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood  

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An Islamic fundamentalist movement created by the pious Egyptian Muslim schoolteacher Hasan al-Banna (b. 1906, d. 1949) in 1928. Aiming to rejuvenate Islam, it sought to impose Islamic law (Shariah) ...
Shi'ite

Shi'ite  

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The smaller of the two main branches of Islam which is the Shi'at Ali (the Party of Ali), as it recognizes Ali's claim to succeed his cousin and father-in-law, the Prophet Muhammad, as the spiritual ...

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