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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Tunisia

Tunisia  

Tunisians have traded democratic freedoms for economic and political stabilityTunisia can be divided into four main geographical regions. The northern one-third of the country consists of spurs of ...
Gellner, Ernest

Gellner, Ernest (1925–95)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,524 words

...and expertise that extended across Europe, West and East, the former Soviet bloc and the Islamic world, notably North Africa and Turkey. Yet it is incontestable that he remained throughout a philosopher in the larger, European sense, though schooled in the British empiricist and analytic tradition, which he valued highly, viewing Kant as ‘the greatest of modern philosophers’ and proclaiming himself a ‘humble adherent’ of ‘ Enlightenment Rationalist Fundamentalism’. His earliest philosophical endeavours were in the philosophy of social science. Here he...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
4,481 words

...Islamic reformist groups were cultural and educational in their outlook. However, with the rise of the radical movements later in the twentieth century, the character of Islamic fundamentalism changed as the new groups were decidedly political. While the Islamic revivalist movements were decidedly normative and idealistic, and the Islamic reformist movements sought to modernize and revitalize Islam, the radical Islamic movements were preoccupied with both sets of issues, making these latter movements a synthesis of their two predecessors. The first Islamic...

Qutb, Sayyid

Qutb, Sayyid (1906–66)   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
652 words

...foreword by Ahmad Zaki Hammad , Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1990. Further reading Moussalli, A. S. , Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: The Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb , Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1992. Shepard, W. E. , ‘ Sayyid Qutb's Doctrine of Jahiliyya ’, International Journal of Middle East Studies , 2003, vol. 35, pp. 521–45. Kiki...

Religion, Philosophy of in Islam

Religion, Philosophy of in Islam   Reference library

The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy, Religion
Length:
10,738 words

...NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980. Swinburne, Richard , Faith and Reason , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981. ———, Responsibility and Atonement , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. ———, The Coherence of Theism , revised edn, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Watt, William Montgomery , Islamic Fundamentalism and Modernity , New York: Routledge, 1988. Imran...

Rabbinic Literature

Rabbinic Literature   Reference library

John T. Townsend

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
7,663 words
Illustration(s):
1

...became remarkably proficient in Rabbinic Literature, while Jewish scholars David Daube and Lawrence Mitchell Wills have demonstrated a critical proficiency in their use of biblical and other Christian texts. Another problem has been what might be termed a certain a residue of fundamentalism in the use of Rabbinic texts. One way this problem exhibits itself is that so many writers seem unconcerned over the lack of critical texts based on the best and most accurate manuscripts, although the need to undo the work of Christian censors is widely recognized. Even...

drama

drama   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,466 words

...in the 16th century. Puritan revulsion against the theatre reached its climax in England when all theatres were kept closed under the Commonwealth from 1648 to 1660 . Islam did not favour dramatic performances for a great part of its history either; it saw them as attempts to create an alternative reality to God's creation. To be sure, fundamentalism has not stifled religious drama in the Islamic world altogether. In Iran the taziyeh , a kind of Passion Play, has been developing since the 18th century as an annual commemoration of the martyrdom in 680 of...

Pan-Africanism

Pan-Africanism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,198 words
Illustration(s):
1

...set the political agenda and to determine the vocabulary of political debate and/or the language in which political discourse is conducted. As well as pan-Africanism, there are other, similar transnational ideas, including Zionism, pan-Arabism, Afro-Asian solidarity, and Islamic fundamentalism, in addition to various international norms and values, including anticolonialism, anti-imperialism, antiracism, national self-determination, and environmentalism. Collectively, such ideas reflect a shared sense of identity focused in numbers of people scattered in...

Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
3,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1923 and 1925. Garvey, Marcus . Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy . Dover, Mass.: The Majority Press, 1986. Lewis, Rupert , and Patrick Bryan , eds. Garvey, His Work and Impact . Trenton: Africa World Press, 1991. Martin, Tony , Compiler . African Fundamentalism: A Literary and Cultural Anthology of Garvey’s Harlem Renaissance . Dover, Mass.: The Majority Press, 1991. Martin, Tony . Amy Ashwood Garvey: Pan-Africanist, Feminist and Mrs. Marcus Garvey No. 1, Or, A Tale of Two Amies . Dover, Mass.: The Majority Press, 2007. Martin,...

Literature and Criticism

Literature and Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
13,550 words

...occurred throughout most of the 1990 s as armed Islamic groups battled government security forces in urban and rural areas. The civilian death toll is estimated at more than 150,000, with journalists, writers, and intellectuals paying an especially high price. In the early 1990 s, both Rachid Boudjedra and Rachid Mimouni published anti-Islamist essays: FIS de la haine (The FIS of Hatred) and De la barbarie en général et de l’intégrisme en particulier (Of Barbarism in General and Fundamentalism in Particular), respectively. In these works, the...

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