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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

fundamentalism

fundamentalism n.   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... n. 1 a form of Protestant Christianity that upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible, including its narratives, doctrines, prophecies, and moral laws. 2 strict maintenance of ancient or fundamental doctrines of any religion or ideology, notably Islam. fundamentalist n. &...

religion and war

religion and war   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...and spiritual leaders. For example, in the 1970s Imam Khomeini of Iran looked forward to the success of the Islamic revolution in Iran as the first step in a holy ‘war of conquest whose final goal is to make Koranic law supreme from one end of the earth to the other’. It was rhetoric of this nature, with its similarities to the medieval Christian Crusades , which led to the growing fear in the West of aggressive ‘Islamic fundamentalism’. And there have also been occasions when military commanders have found a space for religion in their armoury,...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Terrorism and Counterterrorism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...(NATO); and the national‐separatist and religious fundamentalist groups of the Middle East—especially those connected with the liberation movements in Palestine—who attack U.S. forces and civilians first as supporters of Israel and second in connection with the rise of Islamic fundamentalism. The German Red Army Faction (RAF) was responsible for numerous bombings of U.S. military installations. U.S. forces have also been targeted in Italy by the Red Brigades and in Greece by the Revolutionary Organization “November 17.” Apart from bombings, European social...

Terror, War on

Terror, War on   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...terror organization. Decimated, too, was al-Qaeda's radical Islamist ideology dedicated to the restoration of the caliphate and a return to seventh-century Islamic fundamentalism. As the Arab Spring of 2011 engulfed states from Tunisia and Egypt to Libya and Syria, it became apparent that—even if they were ultimately, or selectively, denied—what the Muslim masses yearned for was not religious fundamentalism and theocratic government but individual freedom, dignity, education, and jobs. In that, the analysis of the NSS of 2002 was more or less totally on the...

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)   Reference library

Michael J. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia . New York: Viking, 2008. Offers a stimulating argument on how the United States and NATO botched the reconstruction of Afghanistan. Rashid, Ahmed . Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2000. Provides an incisive look at the development and composition of the Taliban prior to the 9/11 attacks. Rubin, Barnett R. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Of course, the Crusades have been studied primarily as a western European phenomenon because they clearly form a vital part of its religious, intellectual, and institutional structure. They are much less central to Islamic development, and until very recently seem barely to have been part of its memory of the past. Islamic fundamentalism, with its designation of all Western initiatives in the area as “crusades,” has hardly contributed to clarity. Moreover, significant gaps in the historiography of the Middle East have obscured much reality. The Turkish...

consequences of the war

consequences of the war   Reference library

Peter Calvocoressi

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...marginal Zionist movement into an unstoppable Jewish migration which succeeded by force of arms in evicting all the British and half the Arabs from Palestine. This affront to Arab emotions, coupled with Israel's militancy—in self-defence or in fulfilment of Zionism's biblical fundamentalism—made the Middle East more unsettled after the war than it had been between the wars, while it became also more important for outsiders than ever before owing to the wartime and post-war discovery of new oilfields and the failure of other sources of energy to challenge oil's...

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