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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
286 words

...Islamic fundamentalism Used in the English‐speaking world mainly to describe Islamic revivalist movements which profess strict adherence to the Quran and Islamic law, the Shariah. It emerged in reaction to Islamic reform movements during the first half of the twentieth century, which were considered to be infused with Western culture, and to the strong political influence of Western countries on the Arab states. Islamic fundamentalists have had considerable political success from the 1970s. In 1979 , a revolution brought the spiritual leader Ayatollah...

Jaafar al- Nimieri

Jaafar al- Nimieri  

(b. 1930?).President of Sudan 1971–85 He graduated from Khartoum Military College in 1952, and became a commanding officer of the Sudanese army. He led the 1969 coup against Azhari and became ...
Benjadid Chadli

Benjadid Chadli  

(b. 14 Apr. 1929).President of Algeria 1979–92 Born into a peasant family in Bouteldja, he joined the movement for Algerian independence in 1955. As a protégé of Boumédienne, he quickly advanced ...
Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali

Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali  

(b. 3 Sept. 1936).President of Tunisia 1987–2011 Born in Hamam‐Sousse, he graduated from the French military academy of Saint‐Cyr, and received further military training in France and the USA. He ...
Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf  

(1943– )Pakistani general and statesman; President (2001–8). Musharraf was born in Delhi, but his family moved to Pakistan after the partition of India (1947). Joining the army in 1964, he rose to ...
Bülent Ecevit

Bülent Ecevit  

(b. 28 May 1925, d. 11 May 2006).Prime Minister of Turkey 1974, 1977, 1978–9, 1998–2002 Born in Istanbul, where he studied, in 1953 the writer joined the left‐of‐centre Republican People's Party, and ...
Benazir Bhutto

Benazir Bhutto  

(b. 21 June 1953; d. 27 Dec. 2007).Prime Minister of Pakistan 1988–90, 1993–6Early careerBorn in the Sind Province as the daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Benazir studied history and politics at ...
Hafez al- Assad

Hafez al- Assad  

(b. 6 Oct. 1930, d. 16 Oct. 2000).President of Syria 1971–2000Early careerBorn in Qardaha into the Alawi sect, he became an officer in the airforce. He joined the Ba'ath Party in the 1950s, and ...
oil price shock

oil price shock  

(1973, 1979)The trigger for two worldwide economic crises in the 1970s and early 1980s, caused by a sudden and drastic increase in the price of crude oil. In 1973 Arab states responded to US and ...
Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,029 words

... 11 September 2001 brought this particular epistemology into strong relief through the antagonistic actions of Islamic fundamentalists. The designation of “fundamentalism” within Islam is not an easy one. Since the vast majority of believing Muslims are qur᾽anic inerrantists, textual inerrancy is not a useful definitional prism for Islamic fundamentalism. Instead, the focus must be on the social cohesion formed through the particular goal of Islamic fundamentalists: the removal of corrupt or pro-Western governments. Rather than live under governments ordered...

United Malays National Organization

United Malays National Organization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
173 words

...the Union of Malaya . Its chief aim was to fight for national independence, while protecting the interests of the indigenous Malay population. Since independence in 1957 , UMNO has been the dominant party in Malaysia, the continuous rise of Islamic fundamentalism forcing it to emphasize increasingly its Islamic ideals. Despite various frictions within the party, its rule has remained virtually unchallenged, over the next 60 years, largely through the creation of the Barisan National (National Front), a coalition in which most opposition parties came...

pan-Arabism

pan-Arabism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
172 words

...cooperation became increasingly one of rhetoric rather than substance following Egypt's peace treaty with Israel in 1978 , the Iran–Iraq War , and the Gulf War . It was further undermined by deep divisions between Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims. See also nationalism ; Islamic ...

Bendjedid, Chadli

Bendjedid, Chadli (14 Apr. 1929)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
205 words

...of the world oil price from 1981 . In response, he introduced market forces into the economy, though his attempts to reduce state expenditure were met with increasing popular hostility. This was fuelled by the rise of Islamic fundamentalism , which became particularly dangerous when he allowed its articulation in a political party, the Islamic Salvation Front ( Front Islamique du Salut , FIS ). Following the victory of the FIS in the first round of multi‐party elections in December 1991 , the military forced him to resign, on 14 January 1992 , suspending...

Islamic Revivalism

Islamic Revivalism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,958 words

...have always looked to Islamic religious leadership (mullahs and ayatollahs) to fulfill their Islamic obligation of speaking and standing up on their behalf and saving them from the tyranny of the native or foreign rule. When a prophet or a priest rises to protect people from a pharaoh, religion becomes politics. Widespread poverty among urban groups forms the most obvious social seedbed for the responses to Islamic fundamentalism in modern times, but the importance of earlier precedents must be considered as well. The power of Islam to perform political...

Aceh

Aceh   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
658 words

...characteristics in modern times have included Islamic fundamentalism, an unrelenting freedom movement, rich natural resources, and a disastrous earthquake. Islam entered the Indonesian archipelago at the western tip of Sumatra in the eighth century c.e. , long before that territory became the sixteenth-century Aceh sultanate, one of the most powerful states of the Malay-Indonesian region. From those early days until the present, Aceh has been the most fervent center of Islamic fundamentalism in the Indonesian archipelago. Across the centuries...

secularization

secularization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
377 words

...where one particular religion is socially and culturally predominant, such as in Egypt and Turkey. In recent years, secularization has been halted or even reversed in some instances by fundamentalist movements, which have been particularly successful in the case of Islamic fundamentalism . Thus, the Iranian Revolution of 1979 managed to transform a secular state into a theocracy, while the majority of secular Arab states, such as Egypt or Turkey, have been put under threat by the growth of fundamentalist movements. Within Christianity, secularization...

Karimov, Islam Abduganievich

Karimov, Islam Abduganievich (30 Jan. 1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
422 words

...with Russia and China. In 2008 Putin visited Tashkent and closer cooperation was agreed upon to develop the natural gas resources of the country, while Karimov also reached agreements to sell oil and gas to China. Karimov, who argued that his rule ensured that Islamic fundamentalism did not establish itself in Uzbekistan, maintain his dictatorial rule up to his death. He was succeeded by his former Prime Minister, Shavkat Mirziyoyev , who gained 89 per cent of the vote in a 2017 election. In 2014 his billionaire daughter, Gulnara, once seen as a...

Izetbegovic, Alija

Izetbegovic, Alija (8 Aug. 1925)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
519 words

...presidency, and Izetbegovic served as the Bosnian Muslim representative until he stood down in 2000 . During this time the political power lay with the international community's High Representative, appointed as part of the Dayton accords. While his writings favoured Islamic fundamentalism, in practical politics he has worked for a multi-ethnic, democratic Bosnia. He survived both physical dangers and shifting political alliances, and gained respect as a symbol of Bosnian, especially Muslim, national integrity. ...

Taliban

Taliban   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
758 words

...Musa Khan . Taliban and the New Great Game in Afghanistan . Lahore, Pakistan: Dua, 2002. Marsden, Peter . The Taliban: War and Religion in Afghanistan . Cape Town, South Africa: Spearhead; London and New York: Zed Books, 2002. Rashid, Ahmed . Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia . New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2001. M. Hassan...

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
670 words
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...the ruling Congress for Democracy and Progress party in 2014 , founding the People’s Movement for Progress party. Having been relatively immune from the impact of Islamic fundamentalism, there was shock in the country when al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb attacked a hotel in the capital, killing 30 people, in January 2016 . Further attacks have followed and a local Islamist group, Ansarul Islam, has become increasingly active in the north of the country. http://www.gouvernement.gov.bf/ Government of Burkina Faso official portal (in French) http://www.lobservateur...

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